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«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

2 June 01, 2021


1. Sergey N. Malakhov, Anastasia S. Malakhova
Baptism of the Alans and the Establishment of the Alanian Metropolis in the Context of Byzantine Policy in the North Caucasus in the first third of the 10th century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 437-451.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.437CrossRef

There is analyzed the epistolary and narrative sources testifying to the adoption of Christianity by Alania as a result of the mission organized by the Patriarch of Constantinople Nicholas I Mystic (901–907, 912–925). The main sources for the study of this important act of foreign policy of the Byzantine Church and state are the letters of the patriarch; additional information is contained in the essay of Constantine Porphyrogenitus “On the administration of the empire”, “On the ceremonies of the Byzantine court”, notations of the Byzantine Church, some eastern sources. The problem of the adoption of Christianity by the North Caucasian Alans was scientifically posed at the end of the 19th century, but has not yet received a final solution. There are some controversial questions, for example the time of the baptism of the exusiocrator of Alania and its subjects; the chronological sequence of information about the Alanian mission in the epistolary of Nicholas the Mystic; the role of Avasgia and its rulers in helping Greek missionaries in the North Caucasus; the circumstances of the establishment of the Alan metropolis and its status; foreign policy factors in the intensification of missionary activity in the Caucasus at the beginning of the 10th century. An analysis of the letters of the patriarch allows us to assert that the enlightenment of the Alans was organized in 912–913 by the monk Euthymius, who led a group of Byzantine missionaries. Archbishop Peter, who replaced Euthymius in 914, baptized the archon of Alania in September-October 914, or in May-August of the same year, but no later than in September-October, 915. Baptism of the Alans in 914 – 915 was accompanied by the construction of the cathedral (North Zelenchuk Church), which was completed by the mid-920s. The established Alan metropolia did not have episcopal sees and was titular, subordinate directly to the patriarch; the Metropolitan was a confidant of the Byzantine government in contacts with the ruler of Alania. The baptism of Alania fell on a period of deterioration in the foreign policy position of the Byzantine Empire, so the church and the state hoped to find a reliable military ally in the person of the ruler of Alania to protect their interests in the Western Caucasus region and the Balkans.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583753.pdf
Number of views: 179      Download in PDF

2. Denis A. Lyapin
The Main Behavioral Models of the Population of the Belgorod Line in the middle of the 17th century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 452-460.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.452CrossRef

In the 1640−50s, to protect the southern borders of the country, an extensive complex of fortifications was erected, which was called the "Belgorod Line". The study of its history is of great interest to the scientific community. Recently, scientists have been studying this structure a lot. They want to understand how the construction process took place and the accompanying social and military transformations were carried out in the South of Russia. The author of the article focuses on the behavioral models of the local population. These are personality traits necessary to help people cope with everyday difficulties and realize their life attitudes, norms and values in certain conditions. This important topic remains outside the attention of the scientific community. The article provides various examples of the behavior of service people: proactive participation in hostilities, their inherent paternalism and collectivism, the prevalence of public interest over private interests in their environment, the peculiarities of the mentality and world perception of the population are considered. The actions of people were determined by general ideas about service as the most important category of social life. In this regard, an important feature of human behavior was his initiative and perception of his interests in the context of actions for the benefit of the whole team. The team was more important than the person. In conclusion, it is concluded that the models of human behavior that existed in the 17th century contributed to the successful construction of the Belgorod line, they made a person feel part of various social groups and be guided by a single goal. War was perceived as an integral feature of the general world order. Thus, the effective construction and functioning of the fortresses of the Belgorod line was directly related to the behavioral models of the local population.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583763.pdf
Number of views: 127      Download in PDF

3. Anzor V. Darchiev, Svetlana V. Darchieva
To the Issue of the Marriage of the Kartlian Prince Bagrat and the Ossetian Princess (late XVIIth century)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 461-470.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.461CrossRef

The article explores the message of Dionigi Carli da Piacenza (1637−1695), a Catholic missionary and Capuchin friar, about the marriage of Prince Bagrat, the son of King George XI of Kartli (1651−1709), to the daughter of an unknown Ossetian ruler. Although this information provided by Dionigi is considered one of the important sources on the history of Ossetian-Georgian relations in the XVIIth century, upon closer examination it seems quite doubtful. Besides, it contradicts the Georgian sources of said period, which report about Rusudan, the daughter of the Circassian prince Kilchiko, getting engaged to Prince Bagrat. Genealogical research data show that a lot of Georgian-Circassian dynastic marriages were concluded in the 1500s-1700s, while nothing is known about the marriages between Ossetian nobles and members of the Georgian royalty during the same period. Studying the original source in the Ossetian language allowed the author to make a number of important clarifications that contributed to a more correct understanding of the text. Dionigi claims that Ossetians usually lived in forests, which was not exactly the case in the XVIIth century. However, it corresponds to the reports of other European authors of the same period, characterizing the Circassians as forest dwellers. All this leads the author to the conclusion that Dionigi might have made a mistake when translating ethnonyms that were not quite familiar to him. Thus, the “Ossetian princess” in Dionigi's message is most likely the daughter of the Circassian prince, who, according to all other sources, was the fiancee (or wife) of Bagrat, Prince of Kartli.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583778.pdf
Number of views: 116      Download in PDF

4. Marina L. Berezhnova
Quantative Methods in Research of the Tarski uezd Inventory Revision Book of 1701: Problems and Outcomes

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 471-482.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.471CrossRef

The article describes the possibilities of obtaining ethnographic data on Russian inhabitants of the Tara Irtysh Land from The Tarski uezd Inventory Revision Book of 1701, which authorized the poll tax-paying of the citizens. This book is one of the few remained records of that type composed in Siberian uezds in the XVII – the early XVIII centuries. Highlighting the data out of the source that is not expressed in the text explicitly but can be revealed while employing quantative methods in analysis of the information is of utmost importance. Census registration was conducted by households. Only breadwinners were described according to strict form that included the name, the patronymic name, ancestry, place of living, rank, emolument. It also contained the information on those who was a landman, who was a landowner, the taxes and the size of the tithe arable land were also defined. In inventory revision books the following data were included: male relatives that lived in the family, house serves (if they were). The number of cattle in the family, land holdings was indicated. The information on Russian inhabitants of from The Tarski uezd Inventory Revision Book were given in accordance to settlements: the town of Tara, villages and slobodas. Sociology and history science have a great experience of large-scale records analysis. The article features various possible approaches to the research and by means of the example of the analysis of four settlements of different types the possibilities of the usage of quantative methods are described. The following correlations were analyzed: social stratum – parenthood status, ancestry – parenthood status, social stratum – settlement size. The most demonstrative were the results of the analysis connecting ancestry and social stratum.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583788.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

5. Elena G. Lapshina, Dmitry V. Eshchin
The Heritage of the Zagoskin Clan on Penza Land: Noble Estates

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 483-495.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.483CrossRef

This article considers one of the famous domestic «noble nests» − the Penza Territory. The authors characterize the specifics of the local nobility; analyze his assessments in various sources (memoirs, works of local historians, etc.). The main attention in the study is paid to the history of two brothers − Mikhail Nikolaevich and Lavrenty Alekseevich – genus of the ancient noble family of the Penza province of the Zagoskins and the «fate» of their family estates. M.N. Zagoskin – historical novelist, author of the famous literary works «Roslavlev, or Russians in 1812», «Yuri Miloslav, or Russians in 1612», etc. L.A. Zagoskin, a naval officer, a traveler, became famous for his studies of Russian America - descriptions and maps of Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, and Northern California. The brothers were born in the province: M.N. Zagoskin – in the village Tuzhilovka (near the village of Ramzai); L.A. Zagoskin – in village Nikolaevka (near the village of Zagoskino). The authors describe the Zagoskin estates, which were characteristic examples of architectural and urban planning activities of that time and typical manor noble farms of Central European Russia. The noble estate, as a rule, included a manor house, a manor park, outbuildings, etc. In addition, the article considers the history and modern state of the building of the Museum of Folk Art in Penza, which in the XIX century. belonged to the cousin of the Zagoskin brothers Varvara Nikanorovna. The use of manor buildings after the Soviet period is being studied, issues of preservation and prospects for the restoration of the noble Zagoskin estates as part of the cultural and historical heritage of the Penza region are being touched upon.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583801.pdf
Number of views: 117      Download in PDF

6. Timur H. Aloev, Yulia V. Bunkova, Osman A. Zhansitov
Excess with the Misost Clan in Kabarda in the 1740s and Competing Scenarios for Stabilizing the Political System

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 496-505.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.496CrossRef

This article attempts to identify one of the modes of overcoming the internal political conflict in Kabarda through a comparative analysis with the initiatives system of the Russian government to overcome the collision destructive for its interests in the neighboring principality. The work reveals the main attitude of the Russian side towards Greater Kabarda in the period after the conclusion of the Belgrade Treaty of 1739. Though before that Russia showed a desire to preserve the unity of the political elite of the principality as a guarantee of effective opposition to the Crimean expansion in the region, then from the end of the Russian-Ottoman war of 1735–1739 St. Petersburg's goals in relation to traditional partners are undergoing changes. The task of the Russian foreign policy department was to maintain the situation of competition between the two groups of Circassian princes. As the Baksan party was the most consistent counterparty of St. Petersburg since the mid-20s. of the XVIII century, the stake was placed on it. In the spring of 1747, one of the pillars of this group, the feudal Misost clan, was forced to leave the principality. Thus, the stability of Russian influence in the affairs of the “barrier” principality came under threat. This prompted the Russian leadership to try to restore a status-quo acceptable to its interests. The trendsetters for restoring the internal political balance in Kabarda were also the triad of Tlekotlesh clans – Kundet, Tambi (y) and Anzor, dissatisfied with the destabilization of the political system and possessing sufficient ideological and military-political resources to force the dominant princely alliance to agree to the return of the exiles.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1623062903.pdf
Number of views: 117      Download in PDF

7. Leonid A. Bobrov, Alexey M. Pastukhov
“Qinding Huangyu Xiyu Tuzhi” as a Source of the Information of Weapons and Military Symbols for the Population of Central Asia in the middle of the 18th century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 506-526.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.506CrossRef

The article deals with previously untranslated chapters of the Qing source “Qinding Huangyu Xiyu tuzhi” dedicated to the weapons and banners of the population of Central Asia. This source was compiled by the order of Emperor Qianlong after the annexation of the territory of the Dzungarian state to the Qing Empire. A group of Qing officials and European specialists was sent to explore the newly annexed lands. The article analyzes data on the preparation, composition and some features of the expedition to study Dzungaria. It was found that the main researches were carried out in 1756–1757. The study of Eastern Turkestan continued until the spring of 1759. The compilation of the text of “Xiyu Tuzhi” started in the same year and continued, intermittently, for about 23 years (1759–1782). There were 5 stages of this process and their characteristic features are highlighted in the article. It was found that the Manchu generals who took part in the war in Central Asia participated also in the compilation of the source among other specialists. Basic information about the weapons and banners of the population of the region is grouped in chapters (juan) 41 (“Dzungars”) and 42 (“Muslim tribes”). The source describes weapons, armor, and the banners of the Oirat and Turkic population of the region. Some information from the source is unique and could not be not found in other sources of the 18th century. Qing authors correlated the original names of weapons and armor with design and features of these items, making possible the further, more detailed study of the written sources and epics of the population of Central Asia. So, “Xiyu tuzhi” is the main Qing written source on the weapons and banners of the Central Asian population in the middle of the 18th century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583823.pdf
Number of views: 110      Download in PDF

8. Natalia Ye. Goryushkina
“Start All Business from the Beginning”: N.S. Mordvinov – Theorist of the Excise System for Tax Collection from Alcohol

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 527-534.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.527CrossRef

The article is dedicated to the excise doctrine of N.S. Mordvinov. Within the context of this doctrine a special system of conditions, institutions, relations that could ensure the functioning of a new procedure for collecting alcohol tax is outlined. Mordvinov suggested to transfer state distilleries to private persons, not to hamper production with extra regulations giving rise to abuse, to make alcohol turnover free, to collect excise duty immediately at the time of the sale of alcohol, to allow the export of alcohol abroad, but to limit the number of drinking establishments in the Empire. He assigned the key role in the establishment and maintenance of the new excise system for Russia to the government. Mordvinov's excise views were ahead of his time and were considered by contemporaries as remote from reality. The program developed by him was not accepted for implementation, Finance Minister D.A. Guryev settled upon the state monopoly on the production and wholesale of wine and E.F. Kankrin, who later headed the financial department, preferred time proved tax farm. The excise system, introduced only in 1863, was based on that very principles set forth in Mordvinov's works a few decades earlier. The study of the excise concept of a prominent statesman and public figure of the second half of the 18th – first half of the 19th century is extremely important for understanding the prerequisites, meaning and purpose of wine reform, and serious problems in organizing the sales of alcohol in modern Russia determine the practical significance of the article.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583834.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

9. Sergey S. Belousov
State Power and Fishing Settlements on the Lands of Nomads in the North-Western Caspian Region (the second half of the XVIII – XIX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 535-542.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.535CrossRef

The article analyzes the state policy regarding unauthorized fishing settlements on the lands of nomads of the North-Western Caspian region in the second half of the XVIII-XIX centuries. The author investigated the circumstances of the emergence of fishing settlements, considered their national, class and professional composition, and revealed the content of the policy of the authorities in relation to them. The settlements were formed without the knowledge of the authorities, so they were among the unauthorized settlements. The author concluded that the authorities were generally interested in the existence of unauthorized fishing settlements and did not insist on their elimination. They offered their residents their own solutions to the problem, and only if the unauthorized immigrants rejected the proposed conditions for staying on the nomad lands, the question of evicting illegal immigrants was raised. This policy was based on the interests of the fishing industry, which could suffer in the event of the demolition of settlements and the removal of their inhabitants. At the same time, the authorities in their policy had to take into account the interests of nomads in the coastal Caspian Sea and the special legal status of the Kalmyk and Kazakh lands. Because of this, the land issue was quite acute when dividing and allocating land plots to residents of legalized settlements.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622583846.pdf
Number of views: 96      Download in PDF

10. Abilseit Muktar, Ruslan Zhusupov, Ulzhan Akhmetova, Serikzhan Ismailov
Diplomatic Activity of Khan Bukey Barakuly in the 80-s of the XVIII – first quarter of the XIX centuries (based on Russian Archival Materials)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 543-555.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.543CrossRef

This article examines the socio-political and diplomatic activities of the Kazakh khan of the Middle Zhuz Bukey Barakuly with the Russian Empire from the 80-s of the XVIII century to the 20-s of the XIX century. On the basis of documents found in the archives of the Russian Federation, topical economic and political issues related to the history of the Kazakh Khanate, the Russian Empire and Central Asia were presented. The presented archival documents provide evidence on the role and contribution of Bukey Khan in the development of international trade relations. His activities to ensure the security of the passage of trade caravans and embassies through the territory of the Kazakh Khanate allowed Russia to expand trade relations with Kokand, Bukhara, Tashkent, Kashgaria and Kyrgyzstan. These circumstances led to the expansion of trade in the fortifications located in the border zone of the Kazakh and Russian lands. Another feature of this article is that on the basis of the archival documents used, it is possible to consider in detail the social structure of the Bukey Khan embassies, their goals and routes adopted in the capital of the Russian Empire, St. Petersburg. In particular, it describes the measures taken by Russian officials and the political elite of Bukey Khan to strengthen trade ties with Central Asia. In addition, this article provides information about the socio-economic and political situation in the Kazakh Khanate and Central Asia in the late XVIII – early XIX centuries, as well as the impact of these political conditions on the development of the trading system. And all this proves the success of Russia's policy in Kazakhstan and Central Asia at the beginning of the XIX century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622722286.pdf
Number of views: 113      Download in PDF

11. Marina L. Galas, Pavel S. Seleznev
Mythologization of the Reign of Emperor Paul in Russian Political Anecdote and Realities

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 556-571.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.556CrossRef

The image of Paul I is surrounded by a halo of legends, historical myths that replaced the true appearance of this Russian emperor. Political anecdotes about the activities of Pavel Romanov were composed by the courtiers - opponents of the reforms of state administration, his wife Empress Catherine II. The article analyzed literary anecdotes, memoirs of contemporaries of the mythologized emperor, combining half-deception and half-truths, the evil intent of political detractors, the condescending truth of those who escaped the wrath of the emperor or was gifted with his mercy, as well as historical studies about the era of Pavlovian rule, not introduced into the wide scientific circulation and fragmented documents of the Russian State Archives of ancient acts. The authors examined the personal portrait of the emperor, his political course in comparing the biased psychological characteristics of Pavel Petrovich, the historical realities of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, objective external and internal challenges, which the legendary Russian emperor had to solve. Russian Hamlet, as the Count of the North was called in Europe – The Tsarevich Paul, the Russian Don-Kihot, so already the Russian emperor Paul Napoleon, he remained in history, literature «sphinx, not unraveled to the coffin»: «the child of the os'mnadcatogo century, his passions he was a victim: and he despised man, and humanity loved». Who is Emperor Paul: a mad tyrant who sought to destroy Catherine's political order; a smart and enlightened ruler whose rule was reasonable and conditioned to Russia's national interests; reformer, opposition to the ruling aristocracy; regal knight; crowned jester or crowned philosopher?

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584310.pdf
Number of views: 103      Download in PDF

12. Anatoly I. Agafonov, Vladimir P. Trut
“The Tsarevich was Dressed in a Cossack Uniform...” (The Honorary Patronage of the Emperor and the Heir to the Throne over the Don Cossack Guard Units and the Don Cossack Uniform in their Military Wardrobe)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 572-586.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.572CrossRef

The article examines the patronage of the Russian Emperor and the heir to the throne over the Don Guards Cossack regiments and the presence of the Don Guards Cossack military uniform in their wardrobe in the XIX – early XX centuries in the context of the formation and development of the institution of honorary patronage over military units in the Russian Imperial Army. The appointment of the honorary chiefs of the Life Guards of His Majesty's Cossack Army, the Life Guards of His Highness the heir of the Tsarevich of the regiments and the Life Guards of the 6th Don Cossack Battery of His Majesty's Highest personages clearly demonstrated the special patronage of the members of the imperial family to the Cossacks and contributed to the establishment of a special regimental form of Cossack military uniforms, which were distinguished from the uniforms of the Guards, combat and other regiments of the Russian army by a special cut, special appearance and color, aiguillettes, uniform uniforms. fittings and some other elements of a military uniform. The chiefs were required to wear the uniform of their units, took part in their events, in military shows, divorces, parades, the arrival of the guards in St. Petersburg and services in the capital. The military uniform occupied an important place in the government's policy towards the Cossacks, turning them into a military service class, and forming a special socio-ideological image of the "tsar and the Cossack". The emperor and the heir Tsesarevich, who was the August ataman of all the Cossack troops of the country, were represented by the warriors of the Cossacks as one of the military and social pillars of the autocracy. Through the uniform, the ideas of a strong unity of the sovereign and the Cossacks were carried out, the Cossack class mentality was brought up, a certain type of thinking of the Cossacks was created not only as famous soldiers, but also as loyal servants of the state and the emperor, A great influence on the development of the institute of honorary patronage and the development of the Cossack military uniform of the Highest persons was exerted by their visits to the Land of the Don Army (the Don Army Region), participation in Military circles and various events.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584342.pdf
Number of views: 120      Download in PDF

13. Timur A. Magsumov, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade, Mikhail B. Kolotkov, Elena V. Krasnenkova
The Losses of the Caucasian Troops of the Russian Army during the Turkish and Persian Wars in the XIX century: a Historical and Statistical Study

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 587-593.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.587CrossRef

The article examines the losses of the Caucasian troops of the Russian army during the Russian-Turkish and Russian-Persian wars in the 19th century. The attention is paid to the chronology of events, the active periods of hostilities, as well as to the identification of the average daily losses of the Russian army in the Caucasian theater of operations. As a source, the authors used the “The collection of information on the losses of the Caucasian troops during the wars of the Caucasus-Gory, Persian, Turkish and in the Trans-Caspian region”, which was published in Tiflis in 1901. It was prepared by employees of the military-historical department of the headquarters of the Caucasian Military District, its compiler was A.L. Gisetti. The materials presented in the collection cover the period of the Caucasian War of 1801−1864, the Russian-Persian and Russian-Turkish wars in the XIX century, as well as the campaigns of the Russian army in Central Asia. Methodologically, the work is based on the principles of historicism and objectivity, which means that the authors used maximum information to obtain the objective results. A statistical method was widely used in the work, thanks to which it was possible not only to identify the number of days in which active hostilities were conducted, but also to calculate the average daily losses of soldiers and officers of the Russian army in the Caucasian theater of operations, as well as the average daily losses of senior officers and generals. The authors came to the conclusion that of the five conflicts in which Russia, Turkey and Persia took part in the XIX century, the longest was during the Russian-Persian-Turkish war of 1803–1813, which consisted of 291 days of active hostilities. In second place in terms of duration was the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878 – 249 days. In third place is the Russian-Persian War of 1826−1828 – 225 days, on the fourth – the Eastern War of 1853−1856 – 175 days, and the shortest in terms of the number of active combat days was the Russian-Turkish war of 1828–1829 – 73 days. By degree of bitterness, namely, the average daily losses of soldiers and officers of the Caucasian troops, in the first place was the Eastern War of 1853−1856, in the second – the Russian-Turkish war of 1877−1878, and in the third – the Russian-Turkish war of 1828–1829. If we talk about the losses of senior officers and generals, then here the greatest losses were during the Eastern War, and in second place was the Russian-Turkish war of 1828–1829, and already in third place was the Russian-Turkish war of 1877–1878.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584540.pdf
Number of views: 111      Download in PDF

14. Natalya P. Matsakova, Ludmila V. Okonova, Daglara V. Amaeva
The Russian Government Activities on Afforestation in the Kalmyk Steppe of the Astrakhan Province in the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 594-601.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.594CrossRef

Currently, there is an aggravation of the environmental situation in the South of Russia as a result of increased anthropogenic and man-made impacts on the environment. In this regard it is important to study historical experience of the environmental policy of the Russian Empire. One of its most important areas was environmental protection in regions with special natural conditions. Astrakhan province, especially the Kalmyk steppe, belonged to one of the most arid, low-water and treeless regions of the empire, in which the fight against desertification, wind and soil erosion, and water scarcity was an important necessity for the development of the region's economy. The main purpose of this article is to study the main stages and directions of the Russian government's policy on afforestation in the Kalmyk steppe of the Astrakhan province in the XIX century. A wide range of archival documents and works of pre-revolutionary and modern authors have been used to study the history of raising the question of the need for afforestation of the Kalmyk steppe, the reasons, goals and stages of deforestation measures of central and local authorities as a means of improving the efficiency of agriculture and an example of environmental policy. Afforestation activities in the Kalmyk steppe were closely linked to other areas of government policy, in particular, to the policy of settling Kalmyk roads in the Astrakhan province. The authors of the article paid special attention to the reasons for the failure of afforestation measures at the time under consideration, which required a more balanced scientific approach to this problem. It should be noted that measures for the construction of protective forest belts are extremely relevant for the republic at the present time.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584612.pdf
Number of views: 100      Download in PDF

15. Vladimir I. Krasikov, Dmitry A. Grigoriev, Alexander D. Spirin, Vladimir G. Chernyakin
The Era of Alexander I: the First Philosophical Crystallization – Factors of Folding the Community of Russian Intellectuals

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 602-609.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.602CrossRef

The authors discuss the factors and forms of the formation of the intellectual community people inclined to philosophical reflections and having a common space of intellectual attention in Russia in the early 19th century. We use memorial evidence and conceptual insights of philosophers, historians, and cultural scientists as research materials. They apply, as a methodology, the techniques of the «sociology of philosophies» of R. Collins. Researchers identify the composition of socio-political and spiritual conditions that create a united thematic field of intellectual attention. They believe that regarding socio-political conditions, it can be said that this is a weakening of centralization and control, a devaluation of previous prevailing beliefs, the emergence of relatively independent economically groups. If we talk about spiritual circumstances, then this is the import and development of new attractive ideas, their discussion in resonant or «focal» discussions. The authors indicate that the discussion platforms at which the community of Russian intellectuals took shape were heterogeneous, namely, underground congresses of half-secret societies, aristocratic salons, editorial boards of magazines, literary societies, and lectures by university professors. It can be said that during the «focal» discussions, the «construction of national identity» took place and it was an emancipation format. The authors believe that in the 10-20s of the XIX century in the philosophical preferences of Russians there was a reorientation to the philosophical thought of Germany. The Russian intelligentsia has mastered the most advanced technologies of critical and systems thinking. Therefore, it can be argued that by the middle of the XIX century we are seeing a new generation in Russia that has intellectually stood on a par with its European peers. The authors of the article conclude that the associations of the 20-30s of the XIX century, namely «Obshchestvo lyubomudriya», Stankevich, Herzen and Ogarev circles, become real «incubators» for the next generation of «idealists of the forties». They emphasize that the importance of these associations and the meaning of their consideration lies in the appearance of the first forms of the future great distinction between Slavophiles and Westernizers, which is still relevant today.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584664.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

16. Andrey V. Bedrik, Artyom Yu. Peretyatko, Margarita V. Finko, Olga I. Shafranova
Diaspora Communities of the Don Cossack Region in the 19th century: the Experience of Systemic Characteristics

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 610-619.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.610CrossRef

The presented article is devoted to a comprehensive description of the Don diaspora communities of the 19th century, which functioned together in a single socio-economic, political and cultural space of the historical region. The team of authors analyzed the historiographic tradition that characterizes the synchronous development of the Don ethnic diasporas in the context of the systemic modernization of traditional social institutions. The comparative approach allows us to imagine the immanent features of regional ethnic communities that took shape during the previous era and were transformed under the specific influence of the imperial authorities and the Cossack environment. The source base includes both a variety of official and expert statistical data and unpublished documentary materials that reveal the features of regional administrative practices. The daily life of diaspora communities is considered in the general cultural context of a developing region that forms a new model of collective identity.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584711.pdf
Number of views: 88      Download in PDF

17. Sergey A. Pravkin, Vera V. Smirnova, Rosalina V. Shagieva, Maria A. Khvatova
Model of Conciliatory Law and Social Cooperation S.M. Solovyov as a Contribution to the Development of the Concept of the State (Law) School in Russian Historiography

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 620-628.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.620CrossRef

Based on the analysis of the works of Sergei Mikhailovich Solovyov, the article reveals a model of conciliatory law and social cooperation, as well as the contribution of this doctrine to the development of the concept of the state (legal) school in Russian historiography. The historian, speaking about the clan relations between the princes of ancient Russia, expressed the idea that power was a unifying principle, a kind of “growth point” of social unions and the state. In the special role of the state, he saw a mechanism for reconciling general and individual principles, social cooperation. The law became conciliatory, and this was the manifestation of the special role of the state as a mediator in disputes and a judge. The state is necessary for the realization of the common interest. Any form of government represents its people. In his opinion, with social development, the importance of the individual increases. The development of the personal principle expressed the decisive role of the state, which is a form for the people. At the same time, the state acts as a social state (a state for all, a state of the common good). The system of responsibilities in the state must be balanced by the system of rights. The analysis carried out by the authors touches upon the idea of representation of popular interests, which S.M. Soloviev deduces from the principles of natural law, overcoming the opposition of law and law. It is the law that must ensure the balance of the social system. A law or an institution acting outside the context of the people's way of life «causes harm». The concept of S.M. Solovyova acquired a social interpretation, which is of particular importance for understanding social processes in the modern period. At this stage of time, the need arose to create a new unifying model of «conciliatory law», to create conditions for the development of broad initiative "from below», and support, various forms of local self-government and electivity. The main source of the publication was the work of S.M. Solovyov «History of Russia since ancient times».

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584964.pdf
Number of views: 117      Download in PDF

18. Аndrii E. Lebid, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko
Some Aspects of the Religious Life of the Ukrainian Provinces of the Russian Empire in the first half of the 19th century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 629-640.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.629CrossRef

The article analyzes the features of the religious life of the Ukrainian provinces of the Russian Empire in terms of schismaticism and sectarianism in the first half of the 19th century. The source for the study of this issue was the 8th volume of the «History of the Ministry of Internal Affairs» by N.V. Varadinov, where numerous archival data, documents, as well as scientific works were used to study the issues of the religious development of the Russian state during this period. An extensive bibliography of the issue is given, especially of pre-revolutionary authors who specialized in the study of sectarianism and schismaticism. Based on the statistical reports contained in the work, the number of schismatics in the Ukrainian provinces was calculated for 1826−1827, 1837, 1839, 1841, 1846, when, in fact, the reports were submitted to the Ministry. As a result of calculations, we found that the largest number of schismatics in the overwhelming number was recorded in the Chernigov province. In general, their numbers were unevenly distributed across all Ukrainian provinces. It has been established that in the period from 1826 to 1846 there is a general decrease in the number of schismatics on the scale of the empire, while in the territory of the Ukrainian provinces its increase, on average by 27 %. As a conclusion, a hypothesis was formulated that to those given as N.V. Varadinov, and other sources, data on the number of schismatics in the Russian Empire during this period should be treated with skepticism, due to objective circumstances and conditions that do not allow to accurately establish the number of sectarians.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622584996.pdf
Number of views: 103      Download in PDF

19. Roman O. Raynkhardt
Contacts of the Diplomatic Corps in Saint Petersburg with Alexander Pushkin in late 1829 – early 1830: Protocol and Communication Aspects

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 641-651.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.641CrossRef

The article provides an analysis of the protocol and communication aspects of the diplomatic corps of Saint Petersburg contacts with the famous Russian man of letters and back then ex-member of the foreign service Alexander Pushkin in late 1829 – early 1830. Using the materials of Russian, French, Spanish and Neapolitan foreign policy archives alongside other documental sources, as well as specialized literature, with recourse to the prosopographic method, the author analyses the impact of high ranking diplomats’ interaction with Pushkin on their professional activities. The research outlines that many diplomats, especially ambassadors, tended to regard Pushkin not just as a prominent culture figure, but also and rather as a valuable source of information regarding Russian affairs, both domestic and foreign. Therefore, in many cases they might have been the initiators of such contacts conducive to a mutually beneficial exchange of insights. While the heads of diplomatic missions sometimes referred in dispatches to their Russian counterpart, the latter not only took part in the high society protocol events they invited him to, but also managed to interview them on some issues important to him. The analysis looks into the details of this two-way information exchange, while comparing and collating the respective career paths of diplomatic corps members. It reveals that most of them shared certain political stances and ethical values, most importantly moderate sympathies for the Russian State and Emperor, which often diverged from the foreign policy course of the governments they represented. Such a group-uniting factor, in its turn, may be regarded as to a considerable extent determined by their previous diplomatic experience, marriages and personal background. The author concludes that the combination of these features shaped a unique atmosphere within a large fraction of the Saint Petersburg international diplomatic community, Pushkin can be considered in a large sense a part of, on the verge of the 1830s.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585041.pdf
Number of views: 92      Download in PDF

20. Tatiana V. Gryaznukhina, Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Larisa F. Malyutina, Evgeny A. Akhtamov
Russian Liberalism in the 19th century: an Attractive Course of Development or a Road to National Tragedy

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 652-660.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.652CrossRef

Liberal ideas and values have attracted a lot of followers in political circles and society at large, which proves the importance of the topic selected for our study and reveals the need for comparing the values of the19-th century Russian liberals and their ideological successors. The subject of this work is the development of liberal ideas in the post-reform Russia. Intelligentsia were the stalwart proponents of liberal views. Most of them shared Western-European values and strived to adapt them to the Russian environment. The analysis of the views of the main representatives of the liberal movement allowed us to understand their position regarding some essential social and political issues. These views on the main problems, for instance, the future of the peasant community in the post-reform Russia, differed radically, which led to a lack of unity among the liberals. We analyse the reason why liberalism failed to play a decisive role in the movement of Russia towards democratic reforms. The lack of unity of views among the proponents of liberalism, their inability to come to an agreement with the government and meet the advocates of other political trends halfway prevented them from increasing their influence in society and reduced the number of their supporters. The article also discusses the role of liberal press and its most vivid representatives in shaping the public opinion. Our comparison of the views of Russian liberal intelligentsia and Siberian liberals led us to the conclusion that both groups had common views on the main issues of social and economic development of the country. However, the specific nature of the development of Siberia was a reason for certain peculiarities in the views of its inhabitants.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585097.pdf
Number of views: 98      Download in PDF

21. Zaira R. Usmanova
The Process of Introducing the Russian Military-Administrative System in Chechnya and Dagestan in the late 1830s – early 1840s

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 661-668.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.661CrossRef

Within the framework of this study, the process of the introduction of the Russian military-administrative system in Chechnya and Dagestan in the late 1830s – early 1840s was examined. The purpose of the presented work is to identify key trends in the development of the military-administrative policy of the Russian leadership in the specified region. The research methodology is built through a combination of structural, comparative and descriptive analysis. The source base of the work includes materials from the fund of the Caucasian Committee, stored in the Russian State Historical Archive, and sources of personal origin, reflecting the experience and opinions of representatives of the Separate Caucasian Corps. The author comes to the conclusion that the Russian leadership in the period under review was implementing the strategy of the phased expansion of the military-administrative apparatus, designed to ensure in the long term the full integration of the region into the structure of the national control system. At the regional and interregional levels, institutions developed to tighten the control of the military and civilian apparatus over the life of local communities. At the local level, the authorities were forced to preserve the traditional system of government for the region due to their interest in supporting the aristocracy and discontent of the population with attempts to expand the imperial administrative apparatus. The political leadership of the empire regarded this compulsory measure and, in the future, hoped to completely eliminate the independence of the feudal possessions. The program for the development of the military-administrative system of the region did not lead to the achievement of the set goals. Failures in the course of its implementation were largely due to the lack of an adequate understanding of the real practice of the work of the controlling bodies in the localities and the reluctance of local officials to adapt the usual management methods to the North Caucasian customs and mentality. At the local level, the military-administrative policy of the Russian authorities made it possible to maintain stability in most of the fiefdoms and guaranteed the loyalty of the aristocrats who ruled them. At the same time, the used management model preserved a conflict of interests between local rulers and the leadership of the Russian military and civilian apparatus, which was pursuing the goal of eliminating the independence of quasi-state formations in Chechnya and Dagestan. These problems led to the deterioration of the position of Russian troops in the region in the first half of the 1840s. However, to a large extent, the identified difficulties in the course of the military-administrative reforms were inevitable, since the reforms assumed either the destruction or a significant weakening of the traditional institutions of public authority.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585170.pdf
Number of views: 83      Download in PDF

22. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Marina A. Ponomareva, Ludmila G. Zimovets
The Long-Livers of the Russian Empire (1836–1914): Historical and Statistical Research. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 669-688.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.669CrossRef

The authors make an attempt to provide a comprehensive historical and statistical study on long-livers of the Russian Empire in the period 1836−1914. In this part of the work, the period 1850−1875 is analyzed. At this time, the male and female population of the Orthodox faith was recorded. The attention is paid to the number of long-livers, namely persons whose age exceeds 101 years, their places of residence, as well as the specific weight of the number of long-livers to the total population. There were used as materials the reports of the chief prosecutor of the Holy Synod on the spiritual department of the Orthodox faith for 1836−1914. The work is based on the underlying principles of historicism, systematics and objectivity. The statistical method is of great importance in this work, which allowed us to analyze the available statistical data on mortality in the Russian Empire in the period 1850−1875, as well as to identify important characteristic features. Besides this, the use of the statistical method made it possible to identify territories with a large number of long-livers. In conclusion, the authors state that despite the inclusion of information about women in the statistics since 1850, the number of long-livers on the territory of the Russian Empire continued to decline, partly this trend began in the 1840s, continued in the 1850s and 1860s, and reached its minimum value in the first half of the 1870s. The number of persons who reached the maximum age also decreased, while in 1836−1849 long-livers were recorded in the age range from 160 to 165 years, in 1850−1875 the maximum age was in the range from 145 to 150 years. In 1850−1875, the territory of the Georgian Exarchate became the leader in longevity in the Russian Empire, which was replaced by the Caucasian Diocese. The Top 5 also includes three dioceses of the Asian part of the Russian Empire (Tomsk, Irkutsk and the newly formed Yenisei), as well as the newly formed Tavrichesky Diocese of the European part of Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585209.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

23. Sergei B. Zinkovskii, Veronika Yu. Malakhova, Ivan S. Denisov, Yurii N. Makarov
Circassian and Central Asian Slavery: The General and Special (on the Example of Cases of the Return of Russian Prisoners)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 689-698.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.689CrossRef

The paper presents a comparative description of Circassian and Central Asian slavery in the first half of the XIX century. The materials for the preparation of the work were the documents of the State archive of the Orenburg region (Orenburg, Russian Federation), namely the fund 6 “Office of the Orenburg Governor-General. Border Department”, case No. 4994 “on 80 Russian prisoners taken from Khiva in 1839”, dated 1839. This document is being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time. The collection of documents “Circassian slave narratives”, which is the largest collection (1200 documents) on the history of slavery on the territory of Circassia in the late XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries, was also used as a source on slavery on the territory of Circassia. In this collection, we are interested in the list of prisoners from a Turkish slave ship (document 366). The document is dated 1810. The authors came to the following conclusions: it was possible to organize the voluntary return of prisoners to their homeland only in territories with strong vertical power, which the khan of Khiva was able to do, and in Circassia there were simply no such leaders. Also, the difference between Khiva and Circassia was that the latter bordered with the Ottoman Empire, which required a significant number of girls in harems, which is why buying children in Circassia was particularly profitable. In the Khanate of Khiva, almost all slaves were used in agriculture and “live goods” as a luxury were much less popular here. A common feature for both Khiva and Circassia was that about 40 % of the captives on the lists were so-called “fresh live goods”, that is, persons captured in the last few months, which, according to the authors, indirectly indicated the low life expectancy of the slaves.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585352.pdf
Number of views: 115      Download in PDF

24. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Dmitrii V. Karpukhin, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Larisa A. Koroleva
The System of Public Education in the Kutaisi Province in 1846−1917. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 699-716.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.699CrossRef

A series of articles is devoted to the study of the education system in the Kutaisi province of the Russian Empire in the period from 1846 to 1917. This article examines the period from 1885 to 1900. As the main source, the authors used the annual “Reports of the trustee of the Caucasian educational district on the state of educational institutions” of the Ministry of Public Education for 1885−1900. The methodological basis of the research is both special historical methods (historical-comparative, historical-system, historical-statistical (quantitative/mathematical), and general scientific methods (synthesis, analysis, generalization, classification and categorization). Besides the dynamics of quantitative indicators for students, the paper analyzes statistics on such criteria as the ratio of students in male and female gymnasiums and progymnasiums by national composition, confessional, class and gender characteristics (the last criterion is only for applicants for secondary education); to study objectively the dynamics the “cross-sections” are taken at three points of the chronological period indicated by us: 1885 (lower), 1893 (middle) and 1900 (upper). The article also analyzes the dynamics of the number of secondary (gymnasiums, progymnasiums, real schools, teachers ' seminaries, etc.), lower (urban and craft/industrial schools, mountain schools, nautical classes) and primary (state/public urban/rural schools) educational institutions. According to the results of the study, the authors draw conclusions about the dynamics of the development of education in the designated years; in particular, the number of students in secondary and lower educational institutions increased almost 2,5 times, primary – 3 times, with the largest percentage of growth falling on female students. The total number of educational institutions has increased almost 2 times.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585490.pdf
Number of views: 110      Download in PDF

25. Vladimir N. Shaidurov
From Siberia to Novgorod Governorate: Revisiting Migration of Polish Exiles in the second half of the 1850s – early 1870s

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 717-725.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.717CrossRef

Partitions of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the last third of the 18th – early 19th Century resulted in elimination of Polish statehood. Its territories were ceded to the Austrian Empire, Prussia, and the Russian Empire. But Russia was the only one where the "Polish question" turned out to be among the most painful problems from the end of the XVIII century, which resulted in an open or latent confrontation between the nationalist-minded part of Polish society and the tsarist administration. Because of suppression of uprisings led by T. Kostyusko in 1830-1831, the January uprising of 1863-1864, backdoor groups of the 1840s and political parties of the second half of the 19th century, a numerous group of "state criminals" was formed, that was sentenced by court or extra-judicially to serve exile or penal servitude in Siberia. However, they could take advantage of the "royal favors" over time, and ask for easing of punishment or opportunity to leave Siberia, by moving to one of the governorates of the European part of the country, excluding both capitals, the metropolitan and Polish governorates. The Amnesty of the year of 1857 marked the beginning of formation of a group of "returnees", and their number was increasing constantly since the end of the 1860s. Novgorod governorate became one of the centers not only for serving exile, but the center that the Pole resettled from Siberia to. The purpose of this article is to consider issues related to migration of the Pole from Siberian governorates to Novgorod Region in the late 1850s-early 1870s. The problems of transfer, settling, and adapting of the "returnees" to new conditions, as well as their relations with local authorities, were reviewed using specific examples. The article is a case study of the State archive of the Novgorod region

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585545.pdf
Number of views: 87      Download in PDF

26. Victor V. Barabash, Bella A. Bulgarova, Natalia V. Poplavskaya, Liudmila B. Terechik
The Expertise in Analyzing the Regional Education Systems of the Russian Empire (based on the Articles of the International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research). Part 1

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 726-737.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.726CrossRef

The history of education in the Russian Empire remains a controversial and politicized topic. If in Soviet times the achievements of the imperial system were ignored, now, on the contrary, there is a certain idealization of it. This article attempts to look at the education system of the Russian Empire as a set of regional education systems, between which there were serious differences. To achieve this goal, statistical data on 5 provinces and 2 Cossack regions were analyzed, and it was concluded that in the middle of the XIX century, indeed, we can talk about different educational systems in the regions of the empire. At the same time, both organizational differences were noted (for example, in some regions, the schools of the Ministry of State Property were more important for the spreading of literacy in general than the schools of the Ministry of Public Education), and qualitative differences (the proportion of children attending schools, even in regions not affected by the Caucasian war, fluctuated several times). As a result, if in some regions (Vologda province, Orenburg Cossack army) educational institutions were already in all significant settlements, then in others – there were very few of them (less than 30 in the area of the Don Army and less than 10 in the Tiflis province).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585582.pdf
Number of views: 92      Download in PDF

27. Ainur Zh. Gabdulina, Kuralay Sh. Aubakirova, Raushan D. Akhmetova, Gulnur A. Abenova
Merchants of the Steppe Region in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries: Entrepreneurship and Charity

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 738-749.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.738CrossRef

The work examines the entrepreneurial and charitable activities of the merchants on the territory the Steppe Land. Attention is paid to the process of creating water trade routes in region, as well as related infrastructure. The archival materials of the Central State Archives to the Republic of Kazakhstan (Almaty, Kazakhstan), some of which were introduced into scientific circulation for first time, are of great importance into work. In addition, documents from the Semey Museum of History and Local Lore (Semey, Kazakhstan) were used. Archival sources represent departmental correspondence and reports, including documents to the Semipalatinsk customs, reports of the Councils to various societies and committees, as well as letters from regional officials. Materials of periodicals were also used as sources, the newspapers “Semipalatinskaya Zhizn”, “Semipalatinsk Oblastnye Vedomosti”, “Sibirskaya Zhizn”, “Semipalatinskiy Listok”, “Tobolsk Oblast Vedomosti” and others. In order to create a general picture to the everyday life of merchants during research, general scientific and special historical research methods were used. Among general scientific methods, generalizing, analytical and logical methods were applied. From the category of special historical methods, the authors were guided by systemic-structural, historical-retrospective, historical-genetic, as well as historical-typological methods. In conclusion, the authors note that the contribution of the Russian merchants to the development of the region was extensive, merchants stood at the foundation the Upper Irtysh Shipping Company, a printing house, a newspaper, the largest distilleries and breweries in Central Asia and Western Siberia, a steam flour mill, private gold mining, a railway, water supply, telephone, electricity and etc., thereby creating the basis of capitalist relations in the region. In addition, the merchants spent significant funds on social projects for the creation of public schools and parochial schools, for churches and hospitals. All this together gave a significant boost to the birth of a local generation to scientific intelligentsia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585741.pdf
Number of views: 99      Download in PDF

28. Sergey V. Vinogradov, Igor V. Turitsyn, Yuliya G. Eshchenko, Elena V. Saveleva
Meaning of Labor Migration in the Developing of the Outlying Territories of the Russian Empire in 1861−1914 (on the Example of the Volga-Caspian Fishing Region)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 750-759.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.750CrossRef

The authors show the role of labor migration as an important tool for the development of the outlying territories of the Russian Empire, on the example of the Volga-Caspian fishing region. In this article proves that it became possible to quickly develop the natural resources of this region, after the abolition of serfdom and the formation of a free labor market. Peasants rushed to the fishing industry in the hope of earning money from the agrarian overpopulated central and Volga provinces. Some of the labor migrants settled in Volga-Caspian fishing region, becoming workers in fish enterprises, fishers, and entrepreneurs. On the basis of the collected materials, the authors proposed original judgments proving that during the period under study, the fishing industry of the Volga-Caspian fishing region became the main supplier of fish products for the main industrial regions of the country under the conditions of the beginning of industrialization. The article analyzes a set of state documents of the 1860-1880s, contributing to the rapid development and development of the Volga-Caspian fishing region. This study carried out on the basis of a large array of archival documents that make it possible to better understand the organization of labor migrants in the fisheries in 1861-1914. Most of the documents from the funds of the State Archives of the Astrakhan Region are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622585899.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

29. Nugzar K. Ter-Oganov
Ivan Jakovlevich Korostovetz – Russian, Imperial Diplomat and Researcher – from China to Persia

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 760-775.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.760CrossRef

This article examines the rich diplomatic and research activities of Ivan Jakovlevich Korostovetz in the Far East and Persia. Deep knowledge and practical acquaintance with China and Mongolia made it possible for I.J. Korostovetz to engage in scientific research of the history of these countries, as a result of which a number of interesting works were published. Thanks to his experience and professionalism, in 1905 he was elected as a secretary of the Russian delegation headed by famous S.Yu. Witte at the Portsmouth Peace Conference. He also played an important role in the achievement of political independence by Mongolia, for which a century later, in 2014, the grateful Mongolian people erected a monument to him in their capital. Before the outbreak of the World War I I.J. Korostovetz became in demand in the Middle East – in October 1913 he was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Tehran. Despite the short period of his service in Persia, he left a noticeable mark on the history of Russo-Persian relations. His diplomatic activity in Persia came at a dramatic period of world and, in particular, Russian history – at the beginning of the WWI, which changed the political situation in the Near and Middle East. The article shows how, in spite of the Anglo-Russian alliance that had developed before the war, the parties with special adherence to principles continued to fight for political and economic dominance in this country to the detriment of the other side. In the midst of the war, the controversy between I.J. Korostovetz and his British counterpart in Tehran, Sir Walter Townley, reached such an intensity that could call into question the joint actions of Russia and Great Britain in Europe against a common enemy. Despite the general line of the Russian Foreign Ministry, headed by the architect of the Anglo-Russian rapprochement A.P. Izvolsky, aimed at achieving maximum agreement with the British in Persia to the detriment of even Russian interests in this country, I.J. Korostovetz, as a monarchist, did not shared the position of this department. No matter how strange it may seem, but the tough upholding of Russian interests in Persia by I.J. Korostovetz and his uncompromising confrontation with his British colleague W. Townley served as the reason for their recall to their homeland. It should be noted that I.J. Korostovetz is the author of interesting service reports related to Persia, in which an analysis of the political events taking place in this country is given. And after leaving for Russia and even being in exile, I.J. Korostovetz continued to be interested in the events taking place in Persia, which was reflected in his "Persian Arabesques" – unpublished memoirs covering the history of Russian-Persian relations from 1913 to 1929.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622805931.pdf
Number of views: 105      Download in PDF

30. Tatiana I. Khizhaya, Tatiana V. Chumakova, Mikhail S. Stetckevich
Study of the Molokans’ and Subbotniks’ Movements in the Russian Historiography of the 19th – early 20th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 776-785.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.776CrossRef

The paper analyzes home studies of the 19th – early 20th centuries, dedicated to religious non-Orthodox movements in the Russian Empire – the Molokans and the Russian Judaizers. The topicality of the work stems from both insufficient research of the history of these movements in modern religious studies and the extreme lack of works dealing with the pre-revolutionary historiography of the problem. The study reveals the presence of a rich and multifaceted literature on Molokans and Subbotniks, which was created by the officials, church authors, scholars, public figures and private observers. The authors considered diverse aspects of the sectarian movements, so that their works are an important source for the research of Russian religious dissenters and at the same time – a serious contribution to the development of religious studies in Russia. Historiographic analysis traces the formation of the terminology denoting religious dissidents. At first sectological discourse clearly lacked clarity and relevance in the names of the movements as well as in different currents within them. Subsequently the meanings of various terms were clarified, but till the end of the 19th century some researchers still hadn’t been strictly distinguishing both religious movements and their designations. The social status of the authors, their professional activities, political and cultural preferences, sometimes ethnic identity determined (though not always directly) the diverse discourses of perception of religious nonconformists. They varied from intolerance to outright sympathy. During the period under consideration the evolution of concepts of the sectarians as well as interest in them correlated with socio-political and religious processes in the country and also with changes in social and research paradigms.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622586218.pdf
Number of views: 93      Download in PDF

31. Pavel A. Merkulov, Oksana V. Leonova, Elena N. Selyutina
State Policy of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries in Relation to Abandoned Children

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 786-798.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.786CrossRef

The article examines the main historical and legal determinants of the formation of the state policy of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th – beginning of the 20th centuries in relation to abandoned children. The authors analyze the social and legal aspects of the emergence of foundlings, coming to the conclusion about the exponential growth of their number in the context of the modernization of Russian society and the state at the turn of the century. The article substantiates the determinism of the influence of the compilation of exogenous and endogenous factors on the abandonment of their children by the parents by the end of the 19th century. The state, within the framework of its policy, made decisions aimed, on the one hand, at preserving the life of abandoned babies and their upbringing within the framework of established social norms, and, on the other hand, condemning the behavior of people who left children, legislatively fixing abandoning as an illegal act entailing the onset of legal responsibility. With such measures of influence with the help of sanctions of legal norms, the state and legal policy pursued the goal of educating citizens in the spirit of preserving family values and the need to fulfill their parental responsibilities, as well as eliminating the threat to public order and security, which was constituted by street desocialized children who would join the ranks of juvenile criminals. In the context of the stated topic, the authors analyze in detail the law-making and law-enforcement means of legal techniques used by zemstvos to prevent the throwing of children and reduce the cost of their maintenance. Analysis of socio-cultural, legal and technical-legal aspects of state policy in relation to foundlings allows us to show the presence of a clear goal-setting in the formation of a regulatory framework for regulation, to trace the dynamics of changes in the context of the general social situation in the country, to identify the means and mechanisms used, taking into account the assessment of their efficiency.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/pdf.html?n=1622550715.pdf
Number of views: 87      Download in PDF

32. Galya A. Alpyspaeva, Gulmira Zhuman, Sholpan N. Sayаhimova, Lazzat Т. Jumaliyeva
Failed Draft Laws on the "Muslim Issue" in the Steppe Regions and Turkestan Region (late XIX – early XX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 799-811.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.799CrossRef

The article considers one of the important aspects of the state-confessional policy of the Russian Empire in the late XIX – early XX centuries, associated with the solution of the "Muslim question". The autocracy's policy towards Islam is interpreted in the context of analyzing the content of bills and proposals proposed by officials for reorganizing the management of the spiritual life of Muslims in the Steppe regions and Turkestan Territory. The author analyzes the reasons for the aggravation of the "Muslim issue" in the region under the influence of the rise of the all-Russian Muslim movement, the appeal of Muslims with petitions to change the situation in the 60-90s of the XIX century the order of managing their religious life. The development of projects to reform the system of governance of Muslims in the region was conditioned not so much by the desire of the regional administration to satisfy the demands of Muslims, as by the concern about excessive influence on the spiritual life of Muslim-Kazakh Tatars and Central Asian Sarts. The proposed projects, which had the main goal of establishing control over Muslim communities, were primarily aimed at weakening and eliminating this influence. They did not express the whole essence of the confessional policy of the autocracy, but certain provisions contained constructive proposals, the implementation of which would weaken the acuteness of the issue. The conclusion is substantiated that a peculiar civil-military management system in the Steppe regions and the Turkestan Territory, the rivalry between ministries and departments for influence in the regions, bureaucratic procedures for the adoption of bills determined the specifics of the imperial confessional policy towards Muslim-Kazakhs and the failure of projects on the "Muslim issue ".

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622722523.pdf
Number of views: 102      Download in PDF

33. Alexander B. Khramtsov
Dynamics of the Composition of City Assemblies of Western Siberia Following the Election Results in the 1870−1890s

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 812-820.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.812CrossRef

The dynamics of the composition of vowel city assemblies, selected according to the results of the reforms of 1870 and 1892 in Western Siberia (Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces), was studied. According to the law of 1870, the process of forming the composition of city assemblies was determined by the "three-digit" election system, which provided the advantages of "passing" merchants, large homeowners and breeders to the Duma, depriving wide sections of urban residents who did not have real estate property of the opportunity to participate in public affairs. The 1892 law, which reduced the number of both voters and vowels in the Duma, did not lead to an increase in the effectiveness of the latter, but made city meetings even more closed from the bulk of the population. Key social characteristics of vowels as representatives of local society are considered: age, education, origin, viability, religion, etc. In large cities (Tomsk, Tobolsk, Tyumen, Kurgan, Barnaul), Duma compositions were formed from representatives of the commercial and industrial circles of the region. In medium and small cities, vowel compositions were vestry.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622586427.pdf
Number of views: 81      Download in PDF

34. Anton K. Salmin
Festivals and Rites of the Chuvash in the Scientific Heritage of N.I. Ashmarin

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 821-828.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.821CrossRef

There are sort of two subjects in the article: 1) traditional festivals and rites, 2) N.I. Ashmarin’s views on these ethnic identity phenomena. However, they are analyzed in the article as a single cross-cutting issue. Therefore we can say that the headlined subject has more than once brought up in different published works in connection with the study of traditional festivals and rites of the Chuvash people. However, their place in N.I. Ashmarin’s works is considered for the first time. The purpose of this study is the system analysis of the aforesaid objects of the traditional ethnic culture. They are rated as ethnic identity markers. N.I. Ashmarin, though being mainly a linguist, always relied on pieces of folk traditions. In the course of work in Kazan and Cheboksary he, through his disciples, collected a vast fund of materials studied in the article. Those manuscripts are now stored in the Scientific Archive of the Chuvash State Institute of Humanities. It is noted in the article that the most important elements of N.I. Ashmarin’s heritage are the youth open festivals Vaiya (Вӑйӑ), village-wide purificatory acts seren (сĕрен) and hĕr aki (хĕр аки), evil eye removal rites (mainly for children), anaemia protection rite, wedding, funeral and commemorative rites. The author hopes that the researches will draw the two aspects from the article: N.I. Ashmarin’s scientific interests and the traditional festivals and rites of the Chuvash people. In the article, they are shown in the form of synthetic analysis. This is the relevance and novelty of the research. In addition, N.I. Ashmarin’s works promote the ethnological understanding of daily ritualized life of the Chuvash people.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622586554.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

35. Ivan M. Chizh, Maria S. Sergeeva, Margarita B. Shmatova, Alexandra A. Tokar
Ambulance Trains – the Main Means of Evacuation for the Wounded in the Military Campaigns of the Russian Empire in 1877–1917

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 829-839.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.829CrossRef

The process of adapting carriages to the evacuation of the wounded soldiers began in the 1860s, in 1873 the first international standards for the arrangement and equipment of ambulance trains were developed. The first domestic experience of mass evacuation of casualties by railway was obtained during the Russo-Turkish War (1877−1878). During the Russo-Japanese (1904–1905) and World War I (1914–1918) wars, the railways were the priority path for medical and sanitary evacuation. The article examines the process of the formation and development of sanitary railway transport in Russia from the moment of its first use until the last military conflict in the history of the Russian Empire. Permanent and temporary ambulance trains of the Military Department and the ones belonging to public organizations and individuals took part in the evacuation of the sick and wounded. Their main distinction was the different quality and quantity of medical equipment, medical care and service personnel. The Russo-Japanese War was the first test for the railway system of casualty evacuation. The lack of equipped trains was compensated for by the addition of unequipped carriages to them and the creation of a constant frame of carriages to adapt cargo trains to the transportation of the wounded. During the First World War, a lot of problems in the management of ambulance railway transport were solved. However, a number of technical issues of adapting trains to medical needs remained unresolved, in particular, loading/unloading of bedridden patients, providing medical assistance along the movement of the train and disinfection of carriages.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622586784.pdf
Number of views: 88      Download in PDF

36. Yuliya A. Lysenko
Ethno-Economics of the Kazakhs of the Steppe Region in the Modernization Plans of the Russian Empire (second half of the XIX – beginning of the XX century)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 840-849.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.840CrossRef

The article analyzes the policy of the Russian Empire in relation to the traditional economy of the Kazakhs of the Steppe region in the 80s years of XIX – the beginning of XX century. It is marked that bourgeois transformations accompanied by mass relocation of peasants to the Steppe region and creation of commodity agricultural economies demanded considerable land resources. Therefore, the mass settlement was seen as the main mechanism of transformation of the Kazakh nomadic farms. The transition of nomads to agriculture was seen as a natural and progressive process. During numerous interdepartmental discussions at the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, an opinion was established that the settling should be carried out naturally, under the influence of new objective economic conditions caused by mass migration of peasants and withdrawal of pasture lands from the Kazakhs for land resettlement of migrants. Thus, the expediency of increasing the scale of resettlement flows to the Steppe region was recognized. The regional administration, as a whole, recognizing the regularity of transition of Kazakhs to a settled way of life, called to refuse mass settling of nomads and mass spreading of agriculture among already settled ones, mainly because of the limited land resources coming for farming. Therefore, the regional officials connected sedentarization with intensification of cattle breeding and development of an industry for processing livestock products in the region. The mass settling of Kazakhs in the beginning of XX centuries, reorientation of their farms on the market with application of various agricultural tools, gave reasons to believe that the chosen course on sedentarization turned out to be correct.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622587031.pdf
Number of views: 92      Download in PDF

37. Zhaslan Ye. Nurbayev, Gulmira Zh. Sultangazy, Lepuda K. Mukatayeva
Social Transformation of the Siberian Cossackdom within the Formation of the Urban Area of Northern Kazakhstan on the Cusp of the XIX−XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 850-860.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.850CrossRef

This article examines the specifics of the urban space formation in Northern Kazakhstan, which at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries was part of the Steppe Governorate General. The authors explored the processes of the establishment of urban culture and the participation of the Siberian Cossacks in it using the example of the cities of Akmolinsk and Petropavlovsk. The active development of the urban area of Northern Kazakhstan is determined by the administrative and economic activities of the Cossacks. It is obvious that the pre-revolutionary city had specific functions and character, due to geographical and civilizational factors, whereas the Cossacks on the cusp of the XIX−XX centuries experienced a complex transformation caused by the introduction of new forms of life and adaptation to urban life. This article is aimed to identify the specifics of interaction of the Cossack class and the city in the context of colonial events, where the Cossack and the city act as equal dialectically interrelated subjects. The transformation and formation of new social categories and professional orientations became relevant due to the energy of the city making them enjoy application of their labour abilities in the objective socio-economic conditions of the mentioned period. Thus, new professions and new social categories were developed in the Cossack environment. According to the authors, the cities were formed exclusively on the territory of the Border Lines. On the one hand, this fact was supposed to contribute to the development of the city and the formation of an urban lifestyle among the Cossacks, and on the other hand, the Border Line, performing the protecting function, grew to an area where the interests of the local Kazakh population and the Cossacks collided. Socio-economic communications of the Kazakh and Cossack societies led to a complex format of interaction between two differently oriented communities, speakers of different languages, bearers of different traditions and cultures.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622587112.pdf
Number of views: 88      Download in PDF

38. Lyubov N. Shchankina, Irina A. Fedorova, Oksana V. Egorova
Senatorial Audits of the second half of the 19th century as a Means of Overseeing the Activities of Local Authorities

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 861-871.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.861CrossRef

It is devoted to senatorial revisions of the second half of the 19th century, which were divided into three groups in terms of tasks and significance: 1) due to the introduction of the Judicial Charters of 1864 on the territory of the Russian Empire; 2) related to specific instructions of the government and problems at the level of local administrations; 3) the most important audits organized in order to strengthen the state mechanism of autocracy, combat the liberation movement, purge the local apparatus, clarify the facts of execution and bribery. It was revealed that during inspections by senators, multiple violations were found in the field of provincial and county administration; incompetence, inactivity and lack of system in the work of officials; ignorance of the current domestic political problems of the Governor-General; lack of work on peasant reform; failure to comply with the requirements of the law; abuse of power; extreme slowness in the processing of cases. It is emphasized that, since these events left a significant array of historical information of a statistical nature and research material about the provinces being examined (including the number of the population, its employment, moods, the causes of social processes, etc.), the source base of scientific work on this issue can be significantly expanded. It was concluded that there was a strong side of senatorial audits, which consisted in a clear regulation of their implementation, recorded by numerous instructions. At the same time, despite the private positive results, namely the cleansing of the state apparatus, the prosecution of stolen officials, etc., such measures, as a rule, did not have serious political consequences. The exception was the revision of Manasein 1882−1883, the result of which was the reorganization of the Polish and judicial system of the Baltic provinces.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622587189.pdf
Number of views: 79      Download in PDF

39. Viktor V. Titov
National Policy of Nicholas II in the Context of the Formation of Imperial National-State Identity

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 872-880.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.872CrossRef

In the presented study, the effectiveness of the national policy of Nicholas II was studied from the point of view of solving the problems of constructing an imperial-type of national-state identity. The methodology of the work is based on a combination of descriptive, structural and comparative analysis. The theoretical basis of the research is the concept of social identity by G. Tajfel and J. Turner. The author comes to the conclusion that during the reign of Nicholas II, the national policy implemented by the leadership of the Russian Empire did not imply a systemic building of national-state identity. She was distinguished by a diversified, reactive and often situational nature. It was determined by the costs of the modernization process, which contributed to the transformation of the established structure of the social organization of Russian society and the destruction of the «image of the future», which is customary for the masses. The impact of this factor was aggravated by the lack of institutions of mass socialization, suitable for the reproduction of the imperial national-state identity, regardless of the religious or ethnicity of its carriers. Destructive effect on this situation was also exerted by imbalances in the socio-economic development of certain territories of the empire, failures in the foreign policy, a decline in the prestige of the elites and a lack of a collective image of the past. The lack of a relevant reaction on the part of the authorities to the current situation was explained not only by the high rates of socio-economic transformations, but also by the growing scale of external threats, as well as by the expansion of the sphere of economic and cultural expansion on the part of other great powers.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593225.pdf
Number of views: 76      Download in PDF

40. Nicholas W. Mitiukov
Identification of Votkinsk-Built Tank Barges (1883–1917)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 881-888.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.881CrossRef

In the first half of the 1880s, the Votkinsk plant, having fulfilled the last order of the Maritime Department (“Geok-Tepe” steamer), faced the problem of re-profiling the shipbuilding industry. Taking advantage of the "oil boom", he began the production of offshore (roadstead) and river liquid barges, eventually building about two dozen of them. But the records management documentation of the Votkinsk plant does not allow identifying the names of the built vessels, which appear under the conventional names like "Shibaev's barge" or "Richter's barge". Identification is necessary for the reconstruction of the further career of ships and to identify how much they are in demand or not in demand. A comprehensive analysis of office-work and operational documentation (registers and lists of ships) made it possible to determine the names of built non-self-propelled ships. As a result, it turned out that by the time of the revolution, many non-self-propelled tankers built in Votkinsk were concentrated in the fleets of the largest Russian oil carriers (“Nobel Brothers” and “Mazut” companies). This proves the relevance and efficiency of courts, since monopolists would not buy out bad products. Most of the Votkinsk tank barges survived the revolution and the civil war, and some worked until the end of the Great Patriotic War, which proves the high quality of the Votkinsk vessels.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593276.pdf
Number of views: 59      Download in PDF

41. Maria A. Kolesnik, Natalia M. Leshchinskaia, Daria S. Pchelkina
“Yeniseyskiye Eparkhial'nyye Vedomosti” as a Source of History of the Peoples of the North of the Yenisei Province in the late XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 889-897.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.889CrossRef

The article analyzes the content of reports on the missionary activities of the clergy of the Yenisei diocese, published in the journal "Yeniseyskiye eparkhial’nyye vedomosti". Missionary trips were carried out on the territory of the Yenisei diocese from the Arctic Ocean to the borders of China. In this study, the journal is considered as a source on the ethno-cultural dynamics of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North in the late XIX – early XX centuries due to the fact that it contains a large factual material related to the number, gender composition, religion, and ethnic identity. As a methodological basis, we choose a systematic approach and a method of content analysis that allows us to identify key and important definitions for analyzing the state and changes in the composition of ethnic and cultural groups of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the North. The authors of the article selected an array of texts published in 1884-1917, so the article covers a long period-from imperial to revolutionary. The results of the study are conclusions about the changing composition of the indigenous population, the difficult conditions of the traditional way of life, and that ethnic and cultural groups had no idea how to improve them. At the same time, it follows from the analysis of the reports that the indigenous population had a high level of adaptability. And such missionary trips were one of the factors of ethno-cultural dynamics in connection with the emerging new information among the indigenous population.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630620946.pdf
Number of views: 63      Download in PDF

42. Mukhtar B. Kozha, Arnabai A. Nurzhanov, Igor Krupko
The Contribution of Researchers of the Russian Empire to the Study of Antiquities in Kazakhstan: the Case of N.I. Veselovsky

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 898-907.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.898CrossRef

The article analyzes the manuscript of N.I. Veselovsky “Description of the ruins and ancient cities on the road from Kazala to Tashkent”, stored in the Russian State Archives of Literature and Art. Information obtained by N.I. Veselovsky during a trip in the fall of 1884 is given in comparison with the data published by other researchers, which makes it possible to assess the scientist’s contribution to the history of the archaeological study of the region. N.I. Veselovsky was a pioneer in the study of the Korkut-ata mausoleum and the ruins of the medieval city of Sygnak, the Mir fortress. The orientalist stood at the origins of archaeological research of the Otrar settlement, conducted excavations in Sauran and described the monuments of Sairam. His description of the mausoleum of Khoja Ahmed Yasavi and other artifacts of Turkestan has not lost its value. Conducted by N.I. Veselovsky, the accounting and description of numerous monuments and antiquities of South Kazakhstan have not lost their significance in our time. Some of the monuments described by him have over time completely collapsed or changed so much that for the whole complex of antiquities in the Syrdarya region the manuscript of N.I. Veselovsky is the only source of information for us. In historiographic reviews on the history of the archaeological study of Kazakhstan as an integral part of the Russian Empire of that period, it is necessary to take into account the contribution of N.I. Veselovsky.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1623063005.pdf
Number of views: 78      Download in PDF

43. Aleksandr V. Blinov, Yurii M. Goncharov
Male Teachers of Gymnasiums of the West Siberian School District in the second half of the 19th Century – the beginning of the 20th Century: Factors of Everyday Life

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 908-916.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.908CrossRef

The article is devoted to the factors that determined the daily life of teachers of men's gymnasiums in the second half of the 19th – early of the 20th century. The paper based on the materials of the West Siberian Educational District. The relevance of the work is determined by the complex problems of reforming the modern Russian education system. The daily life of the teaching staff of men's gymnasiums in Siberia during the post-reform period was determined by both objective and subjective factors. The objective ones were the rules and principles established and regulated by normative legal acts, including departmental ones. They regulated the organization of the daily professional activities of the pedagogical corps of men's gymnasiums, as well as other educational institutions. The legislation defined many aspects of the status of teachers, in particular their educational level, productivity standards, and the specifics of their professional activities. The legal framework played an important role in shaping the social status of teachers, allowing them to take a certain place in the local society. Of some importance in the organization of everyday life teachers played the level, status, age and educational institutions, on the one hand, determined the place of teachers in the city pedagogical community, and on the other, forced to adhere to traditions in the school. A certain influence on life outside of school was exerted by the level of formation of the urban environment, creating conditions for leisure activities. Subjective factors, such as marital status, income level, and living conditions, influenced both professional daily life and determined the vectors of building the personal life of teachers. The daily life of teachers of Siberian gymnasiums had a number of features, determined by the legislative benefits and the specifics of the socio-cultural development of the cities of the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593344.pdf
Number of views: 61      Download in PDF

44. Svetlana S. Gorokhova, Anna V. Popova , Marianna G. Abramova, Pavel V. Nikitin
Formation of the Proletariat in the Russian Empire: to the Issue of Industrialization at the end of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 917-926.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.917CrossRef

The article is devoted to the study of certain aspects of the socio-economic structure of the Russian Empire in the last decades of the XIX century. Realizing the complexity of the tasks to reflect all relevant characteristics of the social development of the state within one scientific article, the authors, have focused on: the status and level of technological development of the country; the development of large domestic industry; the specifics of the formation of the working class (proletariat), which was virtually unknown in agrarian Russia, its place and role in the renewal of the socio-economic sphere of public life and the statelegal development of the Russian Empire; the formation of a separate social cluster of women workers; the use of child labor in factory production and its significance for the development of industrial relations. The article reflects the main directions of the state policy of that period, aimed at achieving the competitiveness of the Russian economy in the world market. The authors conclude that the state policy of the tsarist government, as well as the measures taken by manufacturers and breeders in large-scale industrial production to strengthen the industrial development of the country, were significant and, of course, positive.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593416.pdf
Number of views: 76      Download in PDF

45. Rustam Z. Almaev, Il'dar N. Baishev, Shamil R. Zajnetdinov, Alina I. Timirgazieva
The Features of Russian Language and Literature Teaching in General Education Institutions in the late 19th and early 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 927-935.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.927CrossRef

This paper concentrates on the specificities of teaching Russian language and literature in primary and secondary educational institutions based on the materials of the Ural region. The chronological framework is late XIX – early XX centuries. The main factors of increasing the importance of these disciplines in the curriculum are shown, including the rapid economic growth of the country, the expansion of the cultural and information space, the efforts of the general public to introduce universal primary education, the increased dependence of achieving success in life on the acquired professional knowledge, as well as the flourishing of national literature. The article also traces the main methodological methods of teaching language subjects in schools. The article examines a set of normative and legal documents of the late XIX – early XX centuries, which affect the teaching of the Russian language and literature both on the scale of Russia and in the Urals provinces. Particular attention is given to the specificities of learning Russian in primary educational institutions for children of non-Russian population. Based mainly on archival documents, the author presents interesting facts that indicate attempts to improve the teaching of Russian language and literature by the pedagogical community of the Urals, examines the reports of inspectors on the state of educational work, and touches on facts from the daily life of teaching.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622627471.pdf
Number of views: 59      Download in PDF

46. Elena A. Brukhanova, Oksana I. Chekryzhova
The Prisoners of Tobolsk Prisons at the end of the XIX century: A Socio-Demographic Portrait on Materials of the 1897 Census

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 936-947.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.936CrossRef

Siberia in the XIX century was unalterably called the "krai of exile", which was due to the need to solve a state problem – the colonization of the outskirts. The forced relocation significantly influenced both on the structure of the region's population and on the economic and cultural development of the territories. By the end of the XIX century the largest convict prisons of Siberia remained only in Tobolsk and Irkutsk. In view of this, the study of various aspects of the exile system and penitentiary institutions of Siberia is relevant for historical research. The article presents the analysis of prisoners in Tobolsk prisons as a special social element of the urban population at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. It is worth noting that at this period four penitentiary institutions of all three categories existing at that time in the Russian Empire were located in Tobolsk: a prison castle, which also acted as a transit prison, two hard labor prisons and a special sections of prisons. The primary and statistical materials of the First General Census of the Russian Empire in 1897 were the main source of data. The census forms preserved unique and fairly complete information about prisoners of all prisons in Tobolsk, which made it possible to consider in detail a number of socio-demographic indicators of prisoners: sex and age, marital status, religious confession and mother tongue, social and professional identification data, migration and/or routing of convicts. A comparison of the general characteristics of the inhabitants of prisons and the urban population on materials of the 1897 census confirmed the significant influence of prisoners on the socio-demographic «portrait» of the city according to a number of indicators such as the number of male employable population, Mohammedans, immigrants from other gubernias. In our opinion, this should be taken into account when conducting various directions of historical research. Thus, the prisoners, according to the indicators, can be considered as a separate social group of the urban population in Siberia at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593490.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

47. Yuliya S. Zamaraeva, Ekaterina A. Sertakova, Alexandra A. Sitnikova
Northern Peoples of the Russian Empire in the Materials of the Krasnoyarsk Subdivision of the East Siberian Russian Geographical Society

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 948-959.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.948CrossRef

The relevance of this research devoted to the study of archival materials and scientific articles of the early XX century about the northern peoples of the Russian Empire is associated with the contemporary industrial development of the northern territories of the Russian Federation: scientific evidence of the turn of the XIX-XX centuries describing the authentic life of the indigenous peoples of the North before the beginning of industrialization allow to determine correctly the modern legal, social and cultural status of such peoples. The research was carried out on the basis of studying such materials as archival documents, some reports for 1912, publications in “Zapiski” (1902, 1905, 1906) and “Izvestia” (1903, 1908, 1914) editions of the Krasnoyarsk Subdivision of the East Siberian Department Of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by the method of analysis of historical sources by V.M. Rynkov. The article analyzes in most detail such texts as "On the position of women among the foreigners of the Turukhansk region" by the author P.Ye. Ostrovskikh (“Izvestia”, 1903), report “In the lower reaches of the Yenisei” by A.Ya. Tugarinov on an expeditionary trip in the summer of 1907 to the Turukhansk Territory (“Izvestia”, 1908), a statistical essay "Inorodtsy of Eastern Siberia, their constitution and occupation" with the results of the general population census for 1897 in individual provinces by the author I. I. Serebrenikov (“Izvestia”, 1914). The article makes it possible to trace the evolution in the interpretation of the peculiarities of the culture of the northern peoples by Russian scientists and field researchers from the end of the 19th century to 1914. Finally a conclusion is made about the contribution of the Krasnoyarsk subdivision of the VSOIRGO to the development of the ethnography of the northern peoples of the Russian Empire: the regularity of scientific field expeditions, the expansion of expeditionary research towards little-studied territories of the state, the systematization of knowledge about northern peoples, an increase in the number of outstanding scientists specializing in the study of northern peoples.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630574593.pdf
Number of views: 75      Download in PDF

48. Konstantin N. Maximov
The Modernization of Russian Statehood: National Outskirts in the Modernization Model of Russia at the beginning of the 20th сentury (on the Example of Kalmykia)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 960-968.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.960CrossRef

In the second half of the XIX - early XX century in the process of modernization of Russian statehood, national regions were also included, in particular the Kalmyk steppe (Kalmykia), as part of a multiethnic state. Taking into account the peculiarities of their development, social reforms, reforms of public administration, self-government, administrative-territorial structure and other spheres were singled out into separate, sequential stages in the implementation of the general modernization policy of the Russian state. The preparatory stage and reforms of public administration, administrative-territorial structure and other spheres of Kalmykia dragged on for almost half a century, in fact, until the beginning of the crisis in Russia. This part of the article examines the processes of modernization of the highest level of state administration of the Kalmyk steppe – the Administration of the Kalmyk people. As a result of the centralization of management, it was withdrawn from the provincial department, subordinated directly vertically to the Ministry of Internal Affairs in the status of a state institution of Russia with its own system of subordinate bodies – ulus administrations. Officials of state institutions of Kalmykia were integrated into the unified system of personnel policy of the country in accordance with the Table of Ranks. In accordance with the general trend in the state apparatus of Kalmykia, the number of officials increased, and its state administration was subjected to bureaucratization. The complex of reforms also included the administrative-territorial reorganization of the Kalmyk steppe, which led to the transformation of local self-government of Kalmykia into the general system of the state. There have been no significant changes in the judicial system. The estates of the judiciary of the Kalmyk steppe, in fact, remained in the hands of the executive branch. As a result of the reform of the management of khurul (church) institutions, the highest clerical ranks in status were equated with civil servants and allocated into a separate independent class group.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593560.pdf
Number of views: 61      Download in PDF

49. Michael B. Averin, Vasily N. Babenko, Valeriy V. Romanov
The Role of the Council of Ministers in the Implementation of Legal Regulation of the Labor of Foreign Workers in the Far East of the Russian Empire (1907−1914)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 969-980.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.969CrossRef

Studying the role of the Council of Ministers of the Russian Empire in the implementation of legal regulation of the labor of foreign workers on the territory of the Russian Far East allows to get a deeper understanding of general immigration legislation, the development of labor relations, the legal status of foreign nationals, as well as the imperial policy in relation to national outskirts in pre-revolutionary Russia. In addition, the article aims to show the significance of the decisions of the Council of Ministers in determining the course of legislative policy in relation to the labor of foreigners, as well as to trace the interaction on these issues with other state institutions. As a result of the study, the authors come to the conclusion that the laws aimed at regulating the labor of foreigners in the Far East, based on a weak socio-economic rationale, already in their norms had provisions on the right of the Council of Ministers to make decisions on exceptions to the general rules. However, public opinion, the efforts of local governor-generals and the demands of the country's defense became an incentive for the Council of Ministers to plan new measures to restrict foreign labor in the Far East until the outbreak of the First World War.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593594.pdf
Number of views: 97      Download in PDF

50. Zarema Y. Emtyl, Saniet R. Zhane, Anna S. Bochkareva
Evolutionary Processes in the Development of Islamic Education of the North Caucasus Nations in the beginning of XX century

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 981-989.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.981CrossRef

The article presents a comprehensive research of evolutionary processes taking place in the development of a Islamic education of the North Caucasus nations in the beginning of XX century, based on a review of a wide range of issues, starting from conditions and prerequisites of evolutionary processes and evolving through specific actions to implement educational tasks, with respective reaction from the official authorities. The authors link evolutionary development of Islamic education to introduction of mundane subjects in spiritual schools’ learning process, application of modern teaching methods in pedagogical practice, and to the fact that teaching came to be delivered in native language, as were the textbooks, and to the start of teaching the history of North Caucasus nations. The research made by the authors make possible to conclude that new progressive processes in the development of Islamic education of the North Caucasus highland nations became evidence of national identity and new cultural needs on the rise. These reasons brought about the nationalization of Islamic education not only in terms of student community but, more importantly, the contents of training programs. Despite the counterproductive attitude of Russian authorities and the old clergy to emerging new Islamic education of the North Caucasus highlanders, the efforts of the new clergy supported by progressive public figures were gradually turning the confessional education into the national one.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593633.pdf
Number of views: 58      Download in PDF

51. Natal'ya P. Koptseva, Kseniya A. Degtyarenko, Anna A. Shpak
The Journal «Nature and People» (1910) as a Source of the Peoples History in the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 990-999.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.990CrossRef

The article discusses the possibilities of the journal "Nature and People" to be a reliable source on the history of the northern peoples of the Russian Empire. The methodology related to the identification of periodicals as historically accurate sources. Based on the criteria necessary for the interpretation of sources, a selection is made of publications that correspond to the reliability of the historical source. The periodical press is one of the recognized historical sources containing the description of economic, political, social, religious, and cultural processes. The analysis of the methodology associated with the source value of periodicals indicates the validity of the choice of the journal "Nature and People" as a source on the history of the peoples of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the XX century. An analysis is made of the 1910 publications. A classification of publications on the ethnography of northern peoples (Tungus, Yakuts, Bessermians and others) is given. As a result, the main topics of publications about the northern peoples of the Russian Empire are highlighted. The essays of the journal "Nature and People" contain geographical, geological, ecological, ethnographic and historical data that either supplement the existing descriptions, or are unique and accompanied by original author's judgments. Issues of the journal "Nature and People" in 1910 contain historical material valuable for the study of the history of the northern peoples of the Russian Empire. Until now, the materials of this periodical have not been included in the ethnography of Russian peoples and have not been taken into account in historiography. This deficiency must be corrected, and the ethnographic essays of the journal must be recognized as an important source for the study of the history of the Northern peoples of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593673.pdf
Number of views: 68      Download in PDF

52. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Ivan M. Romanyuk, Jasmin Gut, Lyubov G. Polyakova
Neurasthenia and “Spirit of 1914”: A Causal Relationship (on the Materials of the Right-Bank Ukraine)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 1000-1007.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.1000CrossRef

Using newspaper materials of Right-Bank Ukraine at the beginning of the twentieth century. and theoretical developments of domestic and foreign experts, the authors investigated one of the little-known aspects of the history of the First World War – the role of the mental state of the population in the formation of public attitudes at the beginning of wartime – a historical phenomenon that entered science under the name of the "spirit of 1914". During the post-reform period, the region experienced a trend characteristic of European countries and Russia – an unprecedented spread of mental illnesses among the urban population, the most famous of which was neurasthenia. This disease was caused by the impact of rapidly developing modernist processes on the psyche of the townspeople. Correspondingly, this process affected the Right-Bank Ukraine – the leading region in terms of urbanization in the Russian Empire, where in 1897 a specialized medical institution was created by the government. The authors investigated the statistics of suicides in Kiev, which both indicated the dynamics of the growth of neurotic diseases among urban residents in the pre-war years, and testified to the opposite in the initial period of the First World War. According to the authors, this effect occurred due to the specific property of neurasthenia to instantly concentrate the early senselessly wasted human energy with lightning speed and direct it into the mainstream of the extreme historical moment that is being experienced – the declaration of war. It was the finding of neurasthenics in the process of internal emotional rebirth that contributed to their pro-war moods.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593713.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

53. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva, Elena K. Mineeva, Leonid L. Balanyuk
The “Temporary Regulation on Military Censorship” as a Historical Source

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 1008-1015.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.1008CrossRef

The paper considers the “Temporary Regulation on military censorship” on June 20, 1914 as a historical source. The attention is paid to the internal criticism of the text. The source is the “Temporary Regulation on military censorship”, published on July 20, 1914 in Petrograd. This regulation consisted of 9 chapters, divided into 86 articles, and was approved by Emperor Nicholas II. The paper applies the principles of historicism and consistency: the first – allowed us to consider the legislative act “Temporary Regulation on military censorship” in the context of the specific historical situation of the period of the First World War, the second – to analyze the options for applying military censorship on different territories: on the theater of military operations and in the rear. In conclusion, the authors state that the “Temporary Regulation on military censorship” is an important source for the organization of military censorship during the First World War. The regulations of this legislative act regulated all possible options for the use of military censorship both in the combat zone and in the rear. The military censors were required to monitor the work of periodical and non-periodical publications, postal messages and telegrams, as well as to get acquainted with the texts of speeches and reports during mass events. On the one hand, the military censors had significant leverage in wartime, and on the other, the activities of the military censors in case of abuse could be challenged by the defendant.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622723863.pdf
Number of views: 74      Download in PDF

54. Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Mikhail D. Severyanov, Galina M. Lushchayeva, Anna S. Zhulaeva
Material Support for Civilian Officials in Eastern Siberia during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 1016-1023.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.1016CrossRef

This article tested the facts of the material support of civilian officials in Eastern Siberia during the First World War (Russian period). The actual salaries, material privileges of local managers examples on the documents from the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk Region and the Irkutsk Region, who served about the institutions of the Yenisei and Irkutsk provinces from 1914 to 1917. Archival sources were formular lists and personal files of officials of provincial and district institutions, demanding statements for the salaries of employees, lists of extracurricular employees, documents of official correspondence, travel to the place of vacation or treatment. Materials of the local Siberian periodicals made information about the changes in the financial situation of the administrative apparatus during the First World War. The historical sources and literature, conclusions revealed the preservation of state guarantees for local officials during a difficult period for the country. Firstly, it was additional money to the salary: canteens, apartments, office expenses, Siberian service. The most effective material aid for officials in the Yenisei and Irkutsk provinces was money for the Siberian service, which, by the way, was received only by employees in full-time positions, provided that they had served here for at least five years. In turn, payments for clerical expenses were focused on categories of positions with a traveling nature of work, and apartment money from 1914 to 1917. weren’t paid to anyone (no cases of their payments were found). At the same time, the amounts of canteen money issued in remote areas and in Central Russia were the same and equally proportional to the salary. Secondly, material privileges in service were also retained during the war years. However, Siberian officials from 1914 to 1917. they practically did not go outside Siberia on vacation and for treatment; they preferred to teach children in local educational institutions. Newspaper notes report that there have been no significant additions to the pay of officials in the face of war inflation and increased workload. The supplements were intended for full-time officials and were of a compensatory nature. During the First World War, the reprieve from the army was interesting for local officials. However, in the Yenisei and Irkutsk provinces, the staffing staff changed frequently and the number of civilian employees from 1914 to 1917. grew. They were funded by leftovers, and women were recruited to these positions in the context of military mobilization. The wives of free-hired scribes drafted into the army received their salaries and canteens for their husbands in full.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593773.pdf
Number of views: 62      Download in PDF

55. Aleksandr I. Kashirin, Vadim V. Strenalyuk, Aleksandr S. Semenov, Pavel A. Kashirin
To the Issue of the Composition and Tactical-Technical Characteristics of Aircraft Carriers of the Black Sea Fleet during the First World War (1914−1917)

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 1024-1032.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.1024CrossRef

The article considers the composition of aircraft carriers of the Black sea fleet during the First World War. The attention is paid to their tactical and technical characteristics. The authors used as materials the documents of the Russian state archive of the Navy (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation). These documents were first introduced into scientific circulation. The reference materials on the research topic were also used in the work. The research methodology is based on historicism, objectivity and retrospect. The use of these methods allowed us to consider the composition of aircraft carriers of the Black sea fleet in the context of a specific historical situation. The retrospective method allowed us to analyze the process of creating aircraft carriers due to the rearmament and retrofitting of civil cargo-passenger steamers at the very beginning of the First World War, this was made possible by applying the unique technological competencies of scientists and engineers to create an innovative technology, which in turn led to the formation of new competencies. In conclusion, the authors state that the Black sea fleet by the beginning of 1917 had a large number of aircraft carriers. There were not only large minelayers and hydro-cruisers, but also ordinary cruisers and gunboats. The total number of aircraft that could be simultaneously taken on board aircraft carriers exceeded 100 units and was quite sufficient not only for intelligence activities and adjustments to artillery fire, but also for massive bombardments.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622920306.pdf
Number of views: 69      Download in PDF

56. Olga V. Kolpakova
Pastoral Ministry of the Penza Clergy during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 1033-1041.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.1033CrossRef

The article is devoted to the review of the activities of the pastor of the Penza diocese during the First World War. In addition to performing his direct pastoral duties related to the satisfaction of religious and moral needs, making efforts to educate citizens in the spirit of devotion to the church and the fatherland, the pastor carried out a lot of duties of a national and public nature. The range of duties of the pastor during the First World War expanded, new requirements were imposed on his activities. He was not only a performer of the sacraments, divine services and the leader of his flock, but also a "clerk" and accountant (for the church economy), an employee of credit and savings and loan institutions. Parishes of the Penza diocese, led by pastors, had to take a broad part in the collection of donations. In the parishes, with the beginning of the war, the collection of allowances for the benefit of families called up for the war was started. The pastors provided assistance to the sick and wounded military personnel, and provided guidance on their preparation for reception and care.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593820.pdf
Number of views: 72      Download in PDF

57. Olga V. Natolochnaya, Ruslan M. Allalyev, Vladimir A. Svechnikov, Svetlana V. Petrova
Planning the Blockade of the Bosphorus by the Black Sea Fleet in 1916. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2021. 16(2): 1042-1051.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2021.2.1042CrossRef

The article considers the issues of planning of the blockade of the Bosphorus by the Black Sea Fleet in the 1916 campaign of the First World War. The special attention is paid to the calculations of the elements of force, as well as the ratio of the Turkish and Russian fleets. The work is based on the documents of the Russian state archive of the Navy (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation). Previously, these documents were not published. The plan for the blockade of the Bosphorus, which was prepared by Captain 2nd Rank B. Tyagin on July 1, 1916 at the Sevastopol roadstead, is important in the work. In methodological terms, the study is based on the basic principles of historical research, namely, the principles of objectivity and reliability. The problem-historical method, which allowed us to consider the planning of the blockade of the Bosphorus in the context of the specific historical situation that developed in 1916 is of great importance in the study. In conclusion, the authors state that when considering the elements of the planning force for the operation of the blockade of the Bosphorus, it was assumed that the blockade would be conducted by the Black sea fleet in three shifts. The blockade was to be accompanied by a barrage of the Bosphorus against submarine and surface ships. The blockade was to be preceded by serious covert and ship intelligence, as well as simultaneously active operations against submarines throughout the Black sea and the defense of the coast and the fleet from attacks by submarines in ports and at sea. Besides, it was necessary to strengthen and specialize the detachment of minelayers. And lastly, during the blockade, a strong and numerous detachment of combat seaplanes with bombs was needed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622593835.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF

full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1630621073.pdf
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URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1622553833.pdf
Number of views: 56      Download in PDF

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