Abstract: The article examines the main problems of Russian-Polish relations of the XVII-XIX centuries in the light of modern Russian historiography. The authors focus on the translation of the German research by M. Rolf, devoted to the status of the Kingdom of Poland in the Russian Empire from the Congress of Vienna to the beginning of the WWI. The main content of the article is the analysis of the interpretations which are presented in this research and their comparison with the concepts of Russian historiography. Considerable attention is paid to the work of the Commission of historians of Russia and Poland, in particular, the conference «Russia in Polish Historiography, Poland in Russian Historiography» organized by this commission, which was held on June 23-25, 2015. The authors substantiate the idea that the study of Russian-Polish relations should be based on scientific interaction for objective research and the formation of a scientific understanding of the common history in public opinion, regardless of the political situation. The article highlights and describes the characteristic features of the main periods of Russian-Polish relations, starting with the formation of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and up to the beginning of the XX century. The authors give a generalized description of the main historiographical interpretations of Russian and Polish researchers, compare them and explain the differences. The article also analyzes the views of historians on previously little-studied aspects of the uprisings of 1830−1831 and 1863−1864. The article deals with the issues of the ethnic and confessional policy of the Russian authorities in the territories of the former Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth incorporated in Russia and the "issues" that arose in the Russian Empire after the incorporation of these territories. In conclusion, the authors note the dependence of historiographical interpretations on the political situation, and the desire of Russian historians, using a wide range of sources, to defend a more balanced position.
Abstract: The article examines the characteristic features and state of the system of protection from water elements, relief of its consequences and assistance to victims in the South of the Russian Empire. The materials for the article were gleaned from the funds of the State Archives of the Astrakhan Region and Krasnodar Territory, most of which are introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, as well as from the periodicals of the period under study. The study analyzes specific situations, organizational and managerial measures to prevent and protect against floods using the example of the Astrakhan province, as well as the organization of assistance to victims of the 1914 hurricane in the Kuban region.
The authors made conclusions about the insufficient legislative regulation in the Russian Empire of measures to combat the water element, rescue and restoration work and assistance to victims. The weak participation of the central government in the development of a system for preventing disasters and stopping their consequences, which was built mostly on public funds and initiatives, was noted. The key areas that required state participation were highlighted: the construction of capital coastal protection structures, the creation of a centralized fund to help victims of the disaster, the formation of a specialized rescue service.
Abstract: The article discusses the main issues related to the formation and further evolution of the parish clergy of the Tobolsk North in the synodal period (XVIII – early XX centuries). It is noted that the need for clergy and clergymen arose soon after the mass Christianization of the indigenous population of the region, which necessitated the construction of temples and the organization of parishes. The clergy was replenished at the expense of the Cossacks, prisoners of war who converted to Orthodoxy, exiled for minor offenses. Subsequently, the clergy was replenished by natural reproduction. In the post-reform period, the beginning of the process of erosion of the class isolation of the local clergy is observed, which, nevertheless, proceeded very slowly. It points to the initially low educational level of representatives of the clergy in the Tobolsk North, which made it necessary to organize the training of the sons of clergy and clergymen. Attempts to create Latin and Slavic-Russian schools cannot be considered successful. Therefore, the training of future clergy members for the parishes of the Tobolsk North was organized outside the region. The Tobolsk Theological Seminary and Theological Schools have become the “forge of personnel”. As a result, by the end of the 19th century the absence of any education other than home education is gradually turning from a rule into an exception. However, getting a complete education was still a serious problem for the northern clergy. It is concluded that in the conditions of the Tobolsk North, the modernization processes associated with the transformation of the clergy went with a significant lag. This shows the uneven development of the peripheral Russian regions in comparison with the central part of the country.
Abstract: The scientific paper explore the institutionalisation of the business, social and political activities of Russians in the 18th and early 20th centuries. Entrepreneurial activity of women of different classes is associated with the process of becoming their legal personality. In this process, the role of a woman in marriage-family relations was formed, property relations (relative to ownership, inheritance), in the civil-legal system, in the economic sphere, in the system of power and government at all levels. Attention is drawn to the educational and educational role in society of economically active Russian women. The charity work of Russian women entrepreneurs is shown.
Statistics on the business activities of Russian women are presented: on the structure and industry composition of women's entrepreneurship, on the volume of production of enterprises, factories managed by Russians, share participation in various areas of the economy, production, the dynamics of the number of factories and enterprises owned by women. The socially oriented entrepreneurship of Russian women is considered.
The authors analyzed the main areas of the women's movement related to the struggle for civil equality, equal opportunities in the labor market and employment, social guarantees, labor protection, supporting of mother-hood and child population.
As part of the study's theme, the authors analyzed of the activities of women's civil society institutions. The forms of interaction between women's public organizations and the executive and legislative authorities in Russia are shown. The attention is drawn to the cooperation of such public organizations with the extranational women's movement. Multifaceted scrutiny of the topic allowed to show the importance of the women's movement for the development of economic, social, legal and management systems of pre-revolutionary Russia.
Abstract: Based on RGADA documents and published written sources, the article shows the dynamics of the ambassadorial ties of the Kazakh Khanate and the Russia at the beginning of the 18th century. The author systematizes all known ambassadorial contacts between the two sides, and shows new ones previously unknown in historiography. The main problems of bilateral relations, raised in the course of ambassadorial contacts, are identified: issues of military cooperation in the fight against the Dzungars, security problems of the Kazakh-Russian borderlands, suppression of mutual attacks, and the establishment of trade relations. The regularity of issues raised in diplomatic correspondence and during mutual embassies indicates that many problems remained unresolved. At the same time, both sides were formally determined to overcome the problems that arose. The materials showed that at the beginning of the 18th century, several centers of relations between Russia and the Kazakhs functioned at once; these are Kazan, Ufa and Tobolsk. At the same time, the Siberian administration was more active in establishing contacts with the Kazakhs during the period of the governor, Prince M.P. Gagarin. A feature of this stage in the relationship between the Kazakhs and Russia was the difficult foreign policy situation in southern Siberia and Central Asia associated with the active policy of the Dzungarian state, which defended its interests in the region. The stage is also characterized by the revival of Russia's interest in the region in the middle of the second decade of the 18th century. The intensity of ambassadorial ties in the second decade of the 18th century after the break allows us to single out this time as a separate stage in the history of diplomatic relations between the Kazakh rulers and the Russian state. The article specifies the duration of the new stage, the dating of a number of embassies and the content of the negotiations.
Abstract: Based on archival materials and other documentary sources, the authors studied the history of the little-known Ukrainian peasant-cossack Kunits family, who lived on the territory of the Konotop Cossack Hundred of the Hetmanate (eventually – Konotopsky uyezd of Chernihiv province). It was found out that the representatives of this family were peasants at the beginning of the XVIII century, but over time, probably, they were able to pass into the cossack state.
After the final incorporation of the Hetmanate into the empire, the russian government made active attempts to reformat the social structure of the population of Ukraine on the russian model. A large stratum of Cossacks was dissolved in almost all social groups. But many of its representatives were given the opportunity to serve in state institutions in lower positions. A large number of cossacks took advantage of this. This gave them the opportunity to occupy a relatively comfortable niche in the social structure of the Russian Empire. The representatives of the Kunits family clearly illustrate this.
According to the authors, the reconstruction of biographies of ordinary representatives of society, including small officials, makes it possible to more objectively assess certain historical phenomena and processes. In this case, some aspects of the development of the bureaucratic apparatus in the Ukrainian lands within the Russian Empire at the end of the XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries are clarified.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the analysis of the productive activities of the Soimonov Dynasty representatives, Mikhail Fedorovich and Petr Alexandrovich, and their contribution to the development of mining and mining education in Russia in the second half of the 18th century. The Soimonov cousins held important positions in the administration of Russia, at the court of Catherine II; they worked both in the capital and in the provinces, and held senior positions. Mikhail Fedorovich was the organizer and founder of the Mining School, and also its first director (1773−1776 and 1796−1801). Petr Alexandrovich also headed the Mining School (1784−1793) and contributed a great deal to its development and prosperity. It should be noted that the biography of M.F. Soimonov is covered in sufficient detail in the scientific literature, but there is no single detailed scientific publication about P.A. Soimonov. This article fills this gap in the historical record. The article uses original and largely unique archival materials (for example, journals from the personal cabinet of Catherine II), memoir sources and published scientific literature.
Abstract: The article considers the results of studying the basic problems of social life arising in the process of settlement of the population, the formation of stable traditions, crafts and crafts in the southern villages of the Trans-Urals of the late XVIII – early XX centuries. Three periods of historiography were highlighted: pre-revolutionary, Soviet and modern. In each of them basic works are studied, their characteristics are given, fragmentation of works is shown. The scientific novelty of the work is associated with little knowledge of the process of resettlement and the specifics of rural crafts, where, under the influence and enrichment of different cultures, a special figurative system of folk applied art has developed. A review of historiography allowed the author to formulate promising directions for further study of the topic: highlighting the main stages, features and patterns of the resettlement process; a comprehensive typology of rural settlements in the south of the region; Identification of rural crafts, handicrafts and traditions; a study of the specifics of folk crafts, their evolution, the causes of the decline of some species; introduction into scientific circulation of new sources on the topic: archival documents, museum collections, materials of field surveys, periodicals, maps of areas; creation of a regional tourist route in the southern settlements of the Tyumen region. The results obtained during the study can become a theoretical basis for popularizing traditional culture and spiritual and moral education of young people.
Abstract: The article analyzes the works of pre-revolutionary Russian authors, affecting various aspects of customary law as one of the main institutions for regulating the life of Kazakh nomads. The article reveals the motives of the Russian authorities organization of the study of traditional customary legal practices in the nomadic environment in the context of the increasingly growing influence of the Russian Empire in the Kazakh steppe. In this context, special attention is paid to the analysis of the contribution of Russian scientists in the collection and publication of materials on customary law of the local population, as well as the factors that cause uneven in the process of collecting materials in various regions of the province. The authors conclude that the study process was more or less well organized, especially in the Western, northwestern and Northern regions, since they were previously drawn into the orbit of the active influence of the Russian Empire. While the emphasis is on the question of the relationship between customary law of the Kazakhs from the official Empire-wide legal standards, including in terms of administrative and legal reforms in the traditional system of justice of the Kazakhs from the 60-ies of the XIX century. We are talking about the attempt of the Russian authorities to include a number of General Imperial legal norms in the ordinary legal practice of the local population by adopting and implementing numerous normative legal acts. It is concluded that thanks to the efforts of pre-revolutionary Russian researchers, a large volume of materials on various aspects of customary law, as one of the institutional components of traditional social relations among nomads, was collected and systematized. These priceless materials, which have become the property of the current generation of nomadic scholars, in fact, represent an inexhaustible source of studying not only the proper customary legal relations in the nomadic environment, but also the historical Ethnography of the Kazakhs in a wide chronological range.
Abstract: The article deals with the problem of the Nogais flight from Circassia in 1793–1839. The attention is paid to the causes of migration, as well as the influence of the Circassian slave capture and slave trade on the demography of Nogai families.
The main source on this issue is the collection of documents “The Circassian Slave Narratives”, which was published in October 2020 in a special issue of the journal “Bylye Gody”. This collection includes 1.2 thousand archival documents from the State archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar city, Russian Federation). In total, due to the data of this collection, in the period from 1793 to 1839, 897 Nogais left Circassia according to incomplete data. The methodology is represented by a set of general and special methods of historical research. The content of the sources and their features determined the application of the statistical method used to account the Nogais who fled from Circassia, as well as to determine the generic ties and the number of people in one Nogai family. The analytical method was also used to systematize and evaluate general information about the Nogais and the reasons for their migration.
In conclusion, the authors state that the “The Circassian Slave Narratives” is a valuable source on the history of the Nogai people in the late XVIII – first half of the XIX centuries. In the late XVIII – early XIX centuries, the Nogais fled from the territory of Circassia, and were subjected to violence by the local population. About half of the families of the Nogai fugitives were abducted and killed, which predetermined the attempts of their departure on the territory of Russia. It is important to explain that the flight of the Nogai communities continued until 1808, and after that there were few cases of flight of the Nogai people who were abducted on the Russian side.
Abstract: The article deals with slavery in the khanates of Central Asia, primarily in Khiva and Bukhara in the first half of the XIX century. The attention is paid to the capture of prisoners and their ethnic structure, the slave trade, the living conditions of slaves, as well as attempts to free slaves from slavery, which were made both personally by the captives and by different states.
As materials, we used various materials of personal origin. First of all, these are the materials of personal origin of representatives of Russian diplomatic missions, Russian officers of the participants in the Khiva campaigns, as well as Russian and foreign travelers.
In conclusion, the authors state that the slave trade and slave capture in Central Asia accounted for a significant part of the region's economic income. The prisoners were captured by nomadic Turkmens in Persia and Russia, and then taken to slave markets in the Asian khanates. It should be clarified that the status of Asian slaves was comparable to the status of domestic animals, and various forms of violence were used against the slaves, including for religious reasons.
For the captives brought to the slave market, the nomadic Turkmens received food, and the buyers sent the captives to agricultural work, for the food production. As a result, an economically attractive chain was created between the nomad, the slave trader and the exploiter. Due to the lack of slaves, the captives were harshly exploited, receiving a minimum of food and clothing from the slave owners. Most of the slaves in Central Asia were natives of Persia, slaves from Russia were much less due to the measures to protect the border – the Orenburg line. However, to completely stop the raids on the territory of Russia, more drastic measures were required, namely, the creation of fortifications directly in the Kyrgyz steppe.
Abstract: The article analyzed one of the most important sources on the history of the Russian Empire of the middle of the XIX с. − «History of the Ministry of Internal Affairs» N.V. Varadinov – Doctor of Law and Philosophy, the brightest representative of «enlightened bureaucracy».
The considerable heuristic potential of this source in the political, economic, social, spiritual and cultural life of the Russian State during this period is noted.
It is established that the history of the Ministry of Internal Affairs by N.V. Varadinov describes in the period from 1802 to 1855, singling out in it three periods: the period of formation of the ministry according to the manifesto of Emperor Alexander I, the period of transformation of the ministry (1810) when some of its functions were transferred to other agencies, and the third period when the basic functions and competencies of the Ministry of the Interior were almost formalized.
It is noted that the most important part of N.V. Varadinov’s research is the 8th, an additional book in which the scholar explores religious issues, in particular issues related to the spread of splintering in the Russian Empire and government policies concerning it. The historian explores the history of the «split» on the example of the «sect» of the iconoclasts, khlists and others.
The distinguishing feature of N.V. Varadinov’s work is factual accuracy, direct work with archival materials of the Ministry itself and other departments.
Abstract: The work examines the activities of the Commission of Theological Schools (1808−1839) on the organization and support of the system of spiritual education in Russia. At the turn of the 18th and 19th centuries, there was an active process of modernization of the education system. And immediately after the reform of secular education, questions began to be raised about the further change of the theological school, which was not orderly, did not have a general systematic education and sufficient provision for further improvement of conditions. The article is devoted to the consideration of proposals for funding, drawn up by highly educated and authoritative church-state leaders of the time. Speransky, Golitsyn, Feofilakt were the creators of the changes that breathed new standards into the old school, reflecting the progressive trends of the Alexander era. Based on a comparative analysis of the report of the Commission of Theological Schools on the allocation of church revenues for the maintenance of the system of spiritual education and diocesan reports, we see that the changes did not arouse general sympathy. The new orders for the subordination of the seminary to the academy or the limitation of the bishop's power over the schools were not supported by the public. The results of this study proved that initially good intentions, underlying innovations did not lead to the desired result. The transformations of the theological schools of the Russian Empire did not touch upon important issues of a class character in teaching and did not set goals in the upbringing of Orthodox Christians to become churched, changing regular curricula and lists of recommended Latin textbooks. The authors proved the influence of the regional aspect on the financing of theological schools, and this relationship reveals the achievements and results of the reform.
Abstract: The presented study is devoted to the study of the specific and factors that hindered the effective implementation of the policy to promote the imperial form of national-state (all-Russian) identity in the Grand Duchy of Finland during the reign of Alexander III. The purpose of this study is a comprehensive assessment of the factors that acted as obstacles to the successful spread of imperial identity in Finland during the reign of Alexander III. The source base of the work includes materials from the State Archives of the Russian Federation (from the funds of the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs) and the Russian State Historical Archives (from the funds of the Department of General Affairs of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the office of the Minister of Internal Affairs and the personal fund of the Minister of Education I.D. Delyanov). The methodology of the work is built through a combination of elements of descriptive, structural and comparative analysis. The author comes to the conclusion that already by the beginning of the reign of Alexander III, the policy of his predecessors led to the emergence of a situation in which the implementation of a comprehensive program for promoting imperial identity in Finland was fraught with undermining Russia's internal political stability. Favorable conditions were formed for the development of Finnish nationalism, first in a cultural and then in a political form. The Grand Duchy turned out to be economically isolated from Russia to a large extent. At the same time, the growth in living standards due to the benefits provided to Finland, along with the creation of a mass education system, contributed to the formation of outgroup discrimination against other subjects of the empire. Traditional institutions for the spread of identity (school, army, church) were isolated at the regional level. The situation was aggravated by the preservation of the image of the “Russian enemy” in the cultural memory of the Finns. As a result, the emperor was forced to choose a course of limited reforms, at the expense of refusing to fully integrate the border region, ensuring the stability of the state.
Abstract: This article examines the first border conflict between the power structures of the Yekaterinoslav province and the Don Host Oblast, which began in the 1820s, developed for more than 10 years and was documented in differentiated sources. The involved empirical material made it possible to reconstruct in detail the complex relationships between two adjacent administrative subjects of the Russian Empire, the real features of land management practice in the regional space, and the specific features of the local bureaucracy. In particular, the author's reconstruction of individual managerial contacts between the executive branch and judicial institutions, illustrating the insufficiently effective coordination of joint actions, is of considerable interest. The collected facts made it possible to establish a systemic connection between the internal socio-political processes that developed during the period under review in the Don Army Region and the external ties of regional power structures. Special attention should be paid to local stories related to open and latent conflicts between the military authorities and the highest imperial administration, which led to a further reduction in the administrative powers of the local elite. It should be noted that a number of portrait sketches characterizing regional officials, for example, the military chieftain D.E. Kuteinikov, and allowing to organically illustrate synchronous administrative processes. The presented article is based on authentic archival materials, a significant part of which is being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time.
Abstract: The authors made an attempt to carry out a comprehensive historical and statistical study of the long-livers of the Russian Empire in the period of 1836−1914. This part of the work analyzes the period of 1836−1849, when only males of the Orthodox faith were registered. The attention is paid to the number of the long-livers, namely to persons whose age has exceeded 101 years, their places of residence, as well as the proportion of the long-livers to the total population.
There were used as materials the reports of the Chief Prosecutor of the Holy Synod for the Spiritual Department of the Orthodox Confession for 1836−1914. The work is structured using the basic principles of historicism, consistency and objectivity. The statistical method is of great importance in the work, which allowed us to analyze as fully as possible the available statistical data on mortality on the territory of the Russian Empire in the period 1836–1849, as well as to reveal the important characteristic features.
In conclusion, the authors state that in the period of 1836−1849 among the deceased long-livers of the Russian Empire were: one person under the age of 165, one under 155, two under 150, seven under 145, two under 140 and 15 under 135. Overall, in the Russian Empire at the indicated time, more than 4.7 thousand people overcame the milestone of 101 years. The regions with the largest number of long-livers were in the European part of Russia (the Caucasus and the Chisinau-Kherson region), and one region in the Asian part of Russia – the Tomsk diocese – was also in the top 5 leaders.
Abstract: A series of articles is devoted to the study of the education system in the Kutaisi province of the Russian Empire in the period from 1846 to 1917. Such methods of historical research as historical-system, historical-typological, statistical and others were used in the work. Their combination makes it possible to reconstruct a picture of public education in the Kutaisi province at a specified time, and also to pay attention to certain characteristics – the specificity of the region.
This article, which is the first part of the series, analyzes the period from 1846 to 1884, i.e., the time of the formation of the education system in the Kutaisi province and the beginning of its integration into the all-russian one. The paper presents statistical data taken from the reports of the trustees of the Caucasian educational district and other archival materials, and examines the main problems that the educational administration of the Kutaisi province had to face in the process of integrating the regional public education system into the all-russian one.
Also the article gives a brief analysis of national and foreign scientific works of pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern periods, dedicated to the establishment of the Imperial system of education in the Caucasus, as well as main sources: the Provisions “About the Caucasian educational district and schools” of October 29, 1853, Report of Trustees of the Caucasian educational district second half of the XIXth century, the Caucasus geographical Acts of the Commission, the Collection of laws of the Russian Empire, etc. The main geographical and socio-economic features of the Kutaisi province are briefly covered.
Abstract: The study of social mobility and social lifts of the 50s of XIX century – early XX century is an urgent scientific problem of Russian history. The preparation and implementation of the great reforms of Alexander II led to the transformation of all spheres of public life, deeply affecting the estate system of the Russian Empire. The ensuing intensification of emancipation, leading to the evolution of inter-social relations, activated social lifts, stimulating both vertical and horizontal mobility. In this article, a team of authors analyzes the transformation in the second half of the 19th century of the main estates of Russia: the nobility, merchants and clergy, which were the final (or intermediate) goal for the transition of representatives of less privileged corporations.
The structure of this work is based on the principles of social ranking of the three specified estates in terms of their attractiveness for the transition. On the basis of this principle, methods of transition to the nobility, merchants and clergy, as well as the rights and obligations of newly entered individuals arising in connection with this transition, are consistently investigated. Based on the quantitative data of official sources, a conclusion is made about the mass character of the merchant's transition to the nobility, despite government measures aimed at complicating such a transition, at the same time, a regularity is drawn about the relative stability of the spiritual class, while softening the restrictive framework for its entry.
At the same time, the team of authors analyzes the gradual erosion of the estate framework during the last third of the 19th – early 20th centuries. and, in parallel, accompanied by this process, the interpenetration of moral norms, values and ideas inherent in the representatives of these estates, which, in turn, simultaneously contributed to the formation of the class structure of Russian society, instead of the de facto collapsing estate system.
Abstract: At the turn of the 40-50s of the XIX century the aggravation of the imperial, geopolitical interests of the leading European powers both in Europe itself and in the Middle East, contributed to the formation of the anti-Russian coalition consisting of the Great Britain, France, Austria, and also Ottoman Turkey.
The alignment of forces that was not in favor of Russia before the start of the Crimean War (1853−1856) led the imperial court to the idea of the need to conclude a military alliance with Iran. The formation of such an alliance would help Russia prevent the creation of a Turkish-Iranian military bloc, whose actions would be directed against the Caucasus.
Fearing such an outcome, in anticipation of the war with Turkey, Russia proposed Iran to make a military alliance. The Russian-Iranian negotiations, which were held from July to December 1853, did not give the expected results, with the exception of the statement made by Naser ed-Din Shah (1848-1896) on Iran's strict neutrality in the case of war against Turkey. Nevertheless, during the next Russian-Iranian negotiations, discussion of two alternative versions of the agreement continued: 1. Conclusion of the Russian-Iranian military alliance or, 2. Declaration of neutrality by Iran. Taking into account the unfavorable foreign policy situation, the Russians decided not to conclude an agreement on a military alliance with Iran, after which, on September 29, 1854, the Convention of Iran's neutrality was signed.
Abstract: In this article, V.V. Blokhin analyzes the worldview of Alexander Herzen and Nikolai Mikhailovsky, their projects for the social reconstruction of post-reform Russia in the second half of the 19th century. Scientific interest in the theorists of populism is caused by the similarity of their socio-political concepts, which are based on the ideas of liberal socialism. In modern Russian historiography, interest in the typology of trends in democratic thought is growing from year to year. In modern Russian historiography, interest in the typology of trends in democratic thought is growing from year to year. Modern researchers give priority attention to reformatory socialism, in which the right and left, conservative trends are distinguished.
The author believes that Herzen and Mikhailovsky expressed an unorthodox liberal-socialist trend in populism. Based on scientific journalism and memoirs, the author compares the socio-political views of Herzen and Mikhailovsky. The common foundations for theorists of liberal socialism are personalism, the idea of personality as the goal and meaning of progress. If Herzen formulated his doctrine of personality, relying on the philosophy of Hegel and the teachings of Saint-Simon, then Mikhailovsky – on the ideas of Proudhon. The philosophy of the Enlightenment with faith in man and a rational social structure became the theoretical prerequisite for the social theory of the populists.
Being people of a critical and free mind, both Herzen and Mikhailovsky viewed progress as a contradictory and unfinished process of gradual changes in society. They were decisive opponents of violence in history, believing that the state as a historical institution had not yet outlived its usefulness, and therefore believed in the reform potential of the autocratic power. The reformism of Herzen and Mikhailovsky was based both on the conservatism of the peasantry, who did not want to follow the revolutionaries, and on the unpreparedness of young people for revolutionary activity, their ignorance of the people. The idea of the intrinsic value of an individual and his freedom, of the priority of social reform over the revolution, of the struggle for political freedoms are the constituent components of liberal socialism, to which both Herzen and Mikhailovsky belonged.
Abstract: The article deals with the organization of charity in the territory of Western and Southern Siberia in the second half of the XIX – early XX century. The authors, relying on an extensive range of archival materials and publications related to this problem, were able to imagine how the Institute of charity was formed in the Muslim environment in Siberia. The article raises the question of two types of donations – waqf and zakat, prescribed by Muslim law, but which have not found official recognition in the legal system of the Russian Empire. Both these forms throughout the existence of the Muslim Ummah as part of the Russian state remained voluntary donations of the community members themselves. In addition, it should be noted that the provincial authorities in the regions have repeatedly prevented any form of donations, relying on secular legislation in their decisions. Special attention is paid to the analysis of charity spheres. In particular, it was found that Muslims paid special attention to supporting the Institute of education and enlightenment. In addition, with the beginning of the First world war, the Russian Ummah saw as its task the need to provide assistance to all those in need. Muslims sought to actively contribute to the charitable activities that developed in the country during the war. Thus, followers of Islam took part in the activities of the red cross. However, constant monitoring of the activities of Muslim communities and the lack of legislative registration of a number of charitable forms led to difficulties in organizing charitable activities on the part of Muslims. The state's policy in this area also often caused Muslims to distrust public foundations, which led to the desire of Muslims to create their own charitable organizations.
Abstract: The article concludes the cycle of works devoted to the reconstruction of order numbers of the shipbuilding shop of the Votkinsk plant. Based on the office documentation of the Votkinsk plant, a list of objects was compiled for which work was carried out in the period 1860−1867. These were orders from the Russian military department with a small number of ships for their own needs.
In the Ship's Lists of 1864, 1879, 1881 and 1904 the products of the Votkinsk plant of the reform period were identified and compared with the list drawn up according to the office documentation. During the comparison, it was found that barges No. 30 and 31 of the Astrakhan port are 75-foot barges built by the plant for the Sveaborg port, which were transferred to the Caspian, probably during the hostilities with the Kokand Khanate.
The resulting combined list of products from the Votkinsk plant was combined with the numbers of orders received. From which it was concluded that the bulk of the orders was received in 1859-1860 and was aimed at modernizing the auxiliary floating facilities of the Baltic Fleet. As a result of the orders received, the Votkinsk plant was able to survive the reform period relatively painlessly. Subsequently, he was forced to re-profile for private orders. The equipment produced in Votkinsk during this period made it possible to radically re-equip the capacities of the Kronstadt and Petersburg ports, and some of the ships produced during this period even participated in the Great Patriotic War.
Abstract: The article focuses on the analysis of assessments of the assimilation ability of the Russian people in Russian social thought of the 19th century. The term was used i8n relation to interaction between an alien and a Russian element in a role of a peaceful colonizer, while not supported at all, or supported to an insignificant degree by the state. The definition of assimilation ability was considered accordingly as the ability to transfer one’s own cultural basis to other nations.
The process of assimilation of the peoples is defined as an essential component of the formation of an ethnical landscape. Its manifestations in Russian history are associated with the advancement of the Slavs to the northeastern lands, the process of the formation of the Russian state and the Great Russian nationality. It’s assimilation abilities analysis allowed researchers to identify two stages. The first stage was defined as successful due to the superiority of the Slavic settlers in socio-cultural terms, the role of the Russian nationality in the formation of the Russian state, as well as the unity of its components. The subsequent loss of assimilation abilities was considered by the Slavophiles and representatives of the conservative-nationalist trend to be a result of the socio-cultural split in the Russian people and the loss of national identity of the intellectual elite. Researchers with a liberal-Western orientation pointed, as a rule, to a low level of culture and education among the Russian people.
The general conclusion of the study of the stated topic in Russian social thought suggests that its representatives explained the loss of the assimilation abilities of the Russian people by the peculiarities of the policy of autocracy, the behavior of the national elite, as well as the incompleteness of the process of theoretical understanding of the status of the Russian people within the state.
Abstract: In modern European historiography, the name of Dr. Joseph-Antoine Roussel and the device for blood transfusion he invented are commonly associated with the studies of the revival of transfusion in medicine in the 1870s. The discussion about the clinical application of transfusion methods, developed in the medical community during this period, was mostly confined to the technical issues: who should become a blood donor (animals or humans), which blood should be transfused (whole or defibrinated), and which method and device was better to use. Roussel was a proponent of transfusions of whole, unaltered venous human blood. The history of Roussel’s device is presented in this article as an example of one of the first successful marketing campaigns, which was actively introduced into medical practice in the middle of the 19th century. Based on archival documents, articles, evaluations and reviews of the doctor’s contemporaries, the authors have attempted to reconstruct the circumstances which determined the success of his “transfuser” among numerous competitors in the mid-1870s. Roussel’s strategy was based on the needs of military field surgery, the development of means and methods of scientific communication, and the expansion of social interest in scientific and technical discoveries and inventions. The key elements of Roussel’s advertising campaign were accessible and open demonstrations of the device for professionals, his reliance on the support of influential representatives from both the aristocracy and the professional community, and popularization of the device among ordinary people. As a result, in the 1870s Dr. Roussel managed not only to organize an international clinical trial of his device “in experiments on patients” with the involvement of the leading European and Russian doctors, but also to arrange the supply of his own device to the armies of Austria-Hungary, Russia, and Belgium.
Abstract: In the article the discussion questions are considered, connected to implementing and developing of serfdom in Russia. There is the contest of the concept itself and main concepts, which differently explain reasons of implementing serfdom in Russia in the second half of XVI – the first half of XVII centuries. A significant attention is paid to the characteristic of serfdom estimating stages in Russia and specialties of this process, concluding why in Russia serfdom was estimated when in most European states it was either canceled or significantly softened.
Further there are reasons of serfdom development in Russia in XVIII century in direction of maximum strengthening and depriving serfs of their remaining personal rights. There is a special attention on the role of Manifest of 1762 and Honorary Diploma to the Russian nobility of 1785, which freed nobles from compulsory service, and thus deprived the continued existence of serfdom of logical and moral justification. Exactly from this moment there starts changing of the managing course in direction of firstly softening, and then gradual cancellation of serfdom (Pavel I, Alexander I, Nicolas I). At the same time, there are reasons of failures of mentioned above Russian monarchs’ attempts to cancel serfdom in the first half of XIX century.
Abstract: After the suppression of the January uprising of 1863, the anti-Polish policy in the Russian Empire intensified. Many participants of the uprising ended up in hard labor, in prisons and in exile. The degree of the rebels ' guilt determined the severity of the punishment. In the Novgorod region, which was located between the two capitals, people who did not pose a great threat to security, relatives of exiles, participants of the uprising who had already served many years of hard labor and exile in Siberia were exiled. Persons with a special social status could serve their exile in Novgorod. Such an exile in Novgorod was the bishop of the Roman Catholic Church, Vikenty Theophilus Popel. The peculiarity of the Polish events of 1863‒1864 was that in the mass armed uprising organized in the North-Western region of the Russian Empire, there was a pronounced religious component. The Catholic clergy led the ideological struggle against the imperial power, actively carried out propaganda, using clerical methods of mobilization. The exile of Bishop Popel to Novgorod (1868‒1875), who did not take an active part in the uprising, was not punitive, but isolated in nature, and therefore limited the bishop's ability to communicate with the Catholic clergy and flock. The article deals with the actual topic of the influence of a historical event on the life of an individual on the example of Bishop Popel. The consideration of the conditions for serving the exile by priest F. Sidorovich allows us to conclude how the social and confessional status of the exiled influenced the repressive nature of the measures of influence on him by the state.
Abstract: Based on a wide range of sources, the article analyzes the process of creation and development of the Department of Agriculture and State Property in the Turkestan General Government. The need for it arose after the completion of the annexation of the Central Asian outskirts to the Russian Empire in the 60s of XIX century and legal consolidation of all natural resources of the region of the state. The department was supposed to protect state property, increase their profitability through leasing, identify new land resources, build irrigation systems on them, and contribute in every way to the development of agriculture in the region. Initially, the functions of the Department were carried out by regional and district governments of the Turkestan Territory, in the staff of which additional positions of officials of special assignments were formed for the mountain, forest, water, quitrent parts. At the end of the 19th century, in connection with the unification of the management system of national outskirts, a branch Administration appeared in Turkestan, reporting to the Ministry of Agriculture and State Property. However, its autonomy in the system of administrative and state bodies of Turkestan was not ensured. The head of the Department was subordinate not only to the relevant ministry, but also to the Turkestan governor-general. In the regions and counties of the region, the functions of managing state property were retained for the regional and county governments.
The vague distribution of the tasks of managing state property between the Department and regional boards led to tough confrontation between them, mutual claims, inconsistency in the implementation of specific work and decision-making. All this, in general, did not allow the formation of an effective service for the protection and augmentation of state property in Turkestan.
Abstract: The article examines the contribution of the scientists of the Mining Institute to the study of the mineral resources of the Russian Empire in the second half of the 19th century to the early XXth century. For the first time, we present the results of a comprehensive analysis of the scientific, theoretical and practical activities of such prominent representatives of mining in post-reform Russia as K.I. Lisenko, I.F. Schroeder, L.I. Lutugin, N.S. Kurnakov and others. On the basis of published materials and using archival sources, it is shown that scientists of the Mining Institute were at the forefront of scientific developments in the fields of exploration, production and use of mineral resources (oil and coal mining, potassium salt production, etc.). Their high scientific potential was in demand by the state, which often acted as the initiator of scientific research on the mineral resource base of the Russian Empire. Scientists of the Mining Institute, being experts in mining, acted at the same time as popularizers of science, undertaking this work both though the meetings of various public organizations and though publishing in periodicals. A high level of scientific training, ensuring continuity in the development of scientific schools, exceptional diligence, and striving for a combination of scientific achievements and production practices have all determined the significance of the results obtained by the scientists of the Mining Institute, which became an important basis for further study of the mineral resource base of Russia and, in general, for the development of the Russian economy.
Abstract: The article studies the issues of conceptualization and design of natural resources by the landowners of the Tambov province at the end of the 19th century. The object of the study was 489 economies of large landowners, who in practice proved the importance of ecological and economic mechanisms for the capitalist modernization of their estates. The relevance of the work is due to the need to fill the historiographic gap in the study of rationalization and socio-economic modernization of latifundial complexes in the post-reform period. The main source was the materials of complex zemstvo statistical descriptions of estates in the Tambov province. Due to the abundance of quantitative and qualitative information in the selected source, its streamlining required the creation of an integrated information system "Rational use of natural resources in the estates of the landowners of the Tambov province at the end of the 19th century", reflecting all available information on the rationalization of agricultural production in the landowners of the region. The work made it possible to determine the logic of transforming the owners' estates, the peculiarities of the system of exploiting natural resources, the nature of the application of agricultural innovations in the economic practice of large owners of the Tambov province. The article shows that in order to increase the efficiency of savings, the latifundists specialized in the field cultivation of estates, introduced a closed production cycle, intensified and increased production with existing natural resources. The use of intensive technologies was expressed in the use of intensive crop rotations, the operation of improved agricultural mechanisms, the introduction of organic and inorganic fertilizers into landlord agriculture. The rationalization undertaken, in turn, was an important factor in the modernization of the owner's economy, determined the formation of a new business economy of estates, was one of the factors of the socio-ecological and economic transformation of the economies of landowners.
Abstract: Zheltuginsky issue arose with the beginning of the active development of gold-bearing deposits by Russian and Chinese subjects in northern Manchuria, which led to the emergence of a large illegal mine settlement. The chronological framework of the study covers the period from 1883 after the first miners appeared on the Zheltuga River and ended in 1886 with the burning of the winter quarters of the Zheltuga Republic. Amur California was able to emerge due to insufficient control on the Russian-Chinese border and the undevelopment of northern Manchuria. In 1883–1886, the activities of workers in Zheltuga led to the creation of an independent social and political entity, which had an impact on the economies of both states. The events on the Zheltuga were examined by authors from the point of view of the development of Russian-Chinese relations at the end of the XIX century, from the standpoint of studying the organization of life in a territory where there was no obvious interference of state power, and the development of intercultural interaction between the Russian and Chinese peoples. The authors analyzed issues of organizing the labor of a mine worker in the last quarter of the XIX century. The resulting picture of the events of 1883–1886, which took place on the Zheltuga, supplements the image of Russian mine workers and become an example of the organization of people's lives. The source base of the research was materials from periodicals, official documents and works of contemporaries of the events. The authors come to the conclusion that the interest of people in consolidating themselves in almost uninhabited territories is possible with the assistance of state authorities and fair distribution of income. In this case, trade relations, infrastructure will receive an additional impetus, the population will consolidate, and, ultimately, the authority of the state itself will be strengthened.
Abstract: The second half of the 19th century in the Russian Empire was the time of intensive growth of capitalism accompanied by the industrial growth. At the same time, the diversification of industry persisted for a long time: large machine industry coexisted with manufacturing and small-scale (handicraft) production. During the reign of Emperor Alexander III, there was a strengthening of the position of heavy industry, an increasingly widespread use of hired labor and an increase in production and capital. Capitalism established itself as the dominant mode of production. Russia was characterized by strong government interference in the industrial sphere via government lending, government orders, financial and customs policy. This laid the foundation for the formation of the system of state capitalism. The Russian government paid a great deal of attention to the extractive industries. After the accession of the Kingdom (or in Russian terms “Tsardom” – auth.) of Poland to Russia, the rich natural resources of the territory entered the empire. For the effective use of natural resources, it was necessary to study foreign expertise and develop an appropriate training system.
This article is devoted to the study of mining industry and education in the Kingdom of Poland in the second half of the 19th – early 20th centuries. The features of using an industrially important coal formation are considered. Close attention is paid to the history of the foundation and functioning of the Dombrova (nowadays: Dabrowa-Gornicza, Poland) Mining School. The administrative structure of this educational institution, the admission of students and their training are described. The article also connects the development of vocational education with general government policy in the Vistula region and the position of officials and employees in educational institutions. The main historical sources for this article were archival documents from the Russian State Historical Archives (RGIA). In addition, the memoirs of domestic mining engineers whose professional activities were associated with the Kingdom of Poland were studied.
Abstract: The article is about actual new methodological approaches, various types of worldview of the local nobility are considered in the new socio-economic and political conditions. The main attention is paid to the subjects of the memoirs of S.Y. Trubetskoy, A.A. Kornilov, as well as the autobiographical notes of V.V. Rozanov, liberal periodical press. On the basis of new methodological approaches, the question of self-identification of the Russian local nobility is raised. The review of the current modern historiography on the problem is carried out. It defines the basic methodological approaches and methods: micro-historical approach, narrative modeling. The analysis of sources was carried out using comparative-historical, historical-typological and historical-biographical research methods. Several worldview types of the Russian local nobility of the XIX-XX centuries are revealed, their distinctive characteristics are given: «new local nobility» (A.A. Kornilov); «local bison» (S.E. Trubetskoy, A.A. Shcherbatov); «enterprising type» (Kubrin); «philosophical» (V.V. Rozanov). The proposed classification is determined by family traditions, the way of life and way of family life, the existing environment.
Abstract: This article analyzes the sources that reveal the topic of relations between such representatives of the Russian Imperial House as Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich and his brother, Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich. Both of them, holding important posts at the reigns of Emperor Alexander III and Emperor Nicholas II, had a significant impact on the political processes in the Russian Empire and on public activity. The diaries of Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich and his correspondence with Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich, which lasted for 40 years, contain valuable information about the brothers’ personal relationships, their daily life, reveal their character traits, as well as their reflection on family, dynastic and political events. These documents, which are stored in the State Archive of the Russian Federation and the Research Department of Manuscripts of the Russian State Library, have so far been published only partially and are far from being fully introduced into scientific circulation. As an example of the possibilities of these sources for studying the relationship between Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich and Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich, information about their contacts in 1895 from the diary of Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich is given. Acknowledgments: The reported study was funded by RFBR, project number 20-09-41012 Palestine “Diaries of Grand Duke Sergey Alexandrovich, 1895–1897”.
Abstract: The presented article is devoted to the organization and principles of fiscal institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia. The study shows the historical and legal conditionality of a number of legislative acts that ensure the flow of monetary incomes to state institutions, and analyzes scientific approaches to the essence and purpose of tax payments in the period under review. Legislative acts reflecting and consolidating the evolution of tax legislation of the pre-revolutionary period are studied successively. Due to the wide range of historical documents, the specifics of collecting individual tax payments and fees have been analyzed. The theoretical aspects of the system of fiscal institutions are highlighted, and the system of financial bodies dealing with taxation issues is reviewed. The analysis of historical sources shows a balance of revenues and expenses maintaining the activities of state institutions. It is emphasized that the tax legislation of the pre-revolutionary period was based on the need for the participation of all social classes in the formation of the revenue side of the budget. The primary focus is on the specifics of the regulatory framework in the field of tax regulation, as well as on the interaction of state bodies in the implementation of the fiscal function. The peculiarities of the tax system in pre-revolutionary Russia were manifested in the centralized management of public finances which were intended to solve the most important state issues. The characteristics of legal acts regulating the procedure for collecting taxes and fees are provided. The study is based on a wide range of historical materials reflecting the organizational and legal issues of financial institutions in pre-revolutionary Russia. Illustrated by specific legislative acts, the socio-economic content of certain types of taxation is revealed. The system of legislative acts is studied in connection with the political and economic situation of the period under review.
Abstract: The article discusses the possibilities of «The North» Journal to be a reliable historical source on the events of the educational reform in the Russian Empire in 1903. The main types of publications in this journal, reflecting the features of the educational reform in the Russian Empire, are considered. The main problematic of journal articles are revealed, which raise the problems of the high status of teachers, current events in the schools of the Russian Empire, and consider social events in the field of education. The article considers various elements of publications in the Sever magazine as separate types of historical sources. As a result, the main problems that are posed and solved by the authors of the articles are highlighted. Much attention is paid to the instructions of Emperor of All Russia Nikolai II Alexandrovich to improve education in the Russian Empire. Sever magazine focuses on the moral qualities of a teacher and a teacher, the authors of the articles proceed from the fact that being a teacher is a highly spiritual mission. Special attention is paid to the problems of education in rural areas. The authors of the articles give their own assessments of current educational events. The analysis showed that various publications in the journal «The North» are significant historical sources on the history of the educational reform in the Russian Empire in 1903.
Abstract: This article tested the facts of the disunity of the socio-political views of local officials at the beginning of the 20th century. It’s previously unknown to historical science. Territorial boundaries are defined by Siberia as a remote territory of the Russian Empire, characterized by greater class heterogeneity among civil servants than in European Russia. Thus, the last governor of the Yenisei province, Ya. G. Gololobov, before his appointment to Siberia, was a member of the “Soyuz 17 October party”, a deputy of the Third State Duma of the Russian Empire, a hereditary nobleman, but openly opposing conservatism in the system of government. He had many supporters of his ideas in the parliament. The reasons for the formation of his socio-political views were ideological principles, which consisted in the need for changes. On the basis of archival materials, it has been proved that officials in Siberia (natives of the peasant and bourgeois environment) were more susceptible to tendencies characteristic of the oppositional mass consciousness of the early 20th century. For example, the stories of an employee of the notary office of the city of Kansk (M.D. Yudin) and a clerical employee of the Yenisei Provincial Administration (A.F. Ilyushin), who committed crimes against the order of administration, but were not brought to the appropriate legal responsibility for unknown reasons, are shown. The first of them, a peasant by origin M.D. Yudin participated in the shooting at Gorodovoy of the Kansk district police in 1910. M.D. Yudin was sentenced to short-term arrest. He was listed in the police structures as a politically unreliable person. He was involved in revolutionary sabotage; however, he continued his career and in 1916 even served as a notary of the city Kansk. The second, official A.F. Ilyushin was the tradesman of the city of Achinsk. He outraged the state flag of the Russian Empire publicly in 1908. He told slogans of proclamation of the revolutionary events of 1905–1907. He tried unsuccessfully to continue his career in the Tomsk province, but he managed to recover in the staff of the Yenisei provincial administration. Archival data indicate that AF Ilyushin worked in the system of public administration until 1919. The top officials of the Irkutsk Governor-General saw the reasons for the disunity and opposition of political views among officials in the low level of salaries. The statistics presented in the article from the reports of officials of the interdepartmental meeting proves that the remuneration of civil servants does not correspond to the requirements of the time in the conditions of the high cost of the beginning of the 20th century.
Abstract: This study is devoted to the topic of the transformation of approaches to solving the agrarian issue in the programs of right-wing and liberal parties in the Russian Empire in the period 1905-1913. The source base of the work was formed by attracting materials from the funds of the parties of cadets, octobrists and the All-Russian "Dubrovin" Union of the Russian people, stored in the funds of the State Archive of the Russian Federation (GARF). When writing the study, pre-revolutionary literature on the stated topic was widely involved.
The methodology of the work is based on the principles of historicism and consistency, a combination of general scientific and special methods. Analysis and synthesis were used as general scientific methods. A special historical narrative method was used to identify and represent causal relationships in the process of transforming approaches to the interpretation and articulation of provisions related to the solution of the agrarian question. The method of comparative analysis was used to study the similarities and differences in the formation and evolution of the approaches of right-wing and liberal parties.
The author comes to the conclusion that the logic of the development of the agrarian programs of the liberal and right-wing parties was largely reactive. Right-wing and liberal parties responded to inquiries from below, acting as a feedback mechanism for their electorate. However, they also experienced pressure from various interest groups of the Russian elite, primarily the government and the monarch. As a result, the transformation of agrarian programs was often determined by the short-term dynamics of the political and socio-economic environment. The development of a proactive position on the agrarian issue of the right-wing and liberal parties was hampered not only by strong ties with interest groups, the multifactorial nature and complexity of demographic, social, technological challenges to agriculture, but also by the strategy of embedding parties in the political structure of the Russian monarchy.
Abstract: Based on the analysis of the materials of the all-Russian agricultural census of 1917, the article characterizes the role of craft activities in the adaptation of immigrants who settled in the Altai region during the implementation of the Stolypin reforms. The involvement of settlers of the Stolypin period in crafts was wider than that of old-timers and migrants of earlier times, which reflects the important role of crafts in the process of adaptation of migrants to the new natural and social environment. Hiring for agricultural work and handicrafts were the main economic activities of the settlers outside of agricultural occupations on their farms. The crafts of the Stolypin settlers were less technically equipped than those of the old-timers and in the vast majority of cases did not go beyond small-scale handicraft production. Most of the settlers-artisans combined crafts with agriculture, but there was also a significant layer of professional artisans who were not engaged in land cultivation, who arrived in Siberia in the expectation of increased demand for their services in a region with a weak development of the manufacturing industry. Stolypin settlers were included in extractive industries (hunting, fishing, beekeeping, collecting wild plants) to a much lesser extent than the old-timers, which indicates their still weak adaptation to the new natural environment.
Abstract: The article examines the activities of the orthodox clergy of the Penza diocese during the First world war. The work is based on materials from the local periodical press of the First world war ("Penza diocesan vedomosti") and archival data. The author states that the charitable activity of the orthodox clergy of the Penza diocese has been manifested since the beginning of military operations. An important role in providing assistance to the families of the victims was played by the boards of Trustees, in which the parish clergy took an active part. The clergy of the Penza diocese provided spiritual and material assistance to the refugees. To provide assistance, parish priests came to places and railway stations. When refugees arrived, parish priests also organized donations of money and clothing, agricultural products, and provided them for the first time. Attention is drawn to the activities of the clergy in collecting donations for the needs of the army. In addition, the clergy made personal contributions for the maintenance of sick and wounded soldiers. During the First world war, the clergy of the Penza diocese opened infirmaries and orphanages, maintained "beds", arranged and fed refugees, and also made voluntary donations and interest payments for various needs of the war.
Abstract: The article presents a comprehensive description of the main trends in the development of the social assistance system in the Russian Empire during the World War I (1914−1917) as a part of the fundamental problem of the evolution the role of the state in the management of social sphere. It is argues that the concept of "social policy" is applicable to the researched period, and charitable activities are considered as an element of a pluralistic model of social policy. The authors note that during the World War I, state social guarantees were established, detailed and legislated for certain categories of the population, which can be combined with the concept of "war victims". It were families of conscripts, soldiers ' orphans, refugees, and war invalids. The article describes the mechanism of social guarantees realization by the public organizations activity. It was peasant self-government, local self-government and their national units, major Russian charities semi-formal character, i.e. under the auspices of the members of the Imperial family, and numerous local charities. The authors concludes that the "supporting structure" of this system was the Supreme Council for the care of families of conscripts, which performed organizational and administrative functions and financed specialized committees and commissions subordinate to it, as well as charitable organizations and institutions. The all-Russian Zemstvo Union and the all-Russian Union of Cities, which were interested in expanding the participation of local governments in the implementation of state social policy, tried to create an alternative to it. According to the authors, the multi-subject nature of the social assistance system, typical of the Russian Empire, can mobilize society's resources for assistance to war victims more flexibly and effectively.
Abstract: The article deals with the planning of the blockade of the Bosphorus by the Black sea fleet in the 1916 campaign of the First World War. The special attention is paid to the planning of the use of hydroaeroplanes in the operation to deliver massive bomb attacks on Constantinople.
The work is based on the documents of the Russian state naval archive (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation). Previously, these documents were not published. The plan for the blockade of the Bosphorus, which was prepared by Captain 2nd Rank B. Tyagin on July 1, 1916 at the Sevastopol roadstead, is important in the work. In methodological terms, the study is based on the basic principles of historical research, namely, the principles of objectivity and reliability. The problem-historical method, which allowed us to consider the planning of the blockade of the Bosphorus in the context of the specific historical situation that developed in 1916 is of great importance in the study.
In conclusion, the authors state that when planning the operation to blockade the Bosphorus, it was assumed that the operation could last up to two months. The most favorable time of the year of the blockade was the end of spring, the beginning of summer, November and the beginning of December. The blockade must be established after the enemy completes any major submarine operation in the Black Sea. Battleships of the Black Sea Fleet blocking the Bosphorus could be located at a distance of 30-35 miles from the Strait. It was also taken into account that the barrier should be strongly stretched along the coast, and on its flanks there should be Russian submarines. A special role was given to the massive use of hydroaeroplanes, which had to be equipped with heavy bombs.
Abstract: The article deals with the entry of Romania into the First World War on the side of the Entente, the military operations of the Romanian army and the creation of the Romanian Front. The considerable attention is also paid to the numerical composition of the troops of the Central Powers and the Entente.
As a source, the documents of the Russian state archive of the Navy (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation), which are being introduced into scientific circulation for the first time, were used, namely, the fund 716 – Naval Headquarters of the Supreme Commander (Stavka).
In conclusion, the authors state that although Romania's entry into the war led its army to defeat and forced Russia to significantly lengthen the front, introducing the entire 9th army into Moldova, and then transferring up to 20 infantry and 10 cavalry divisions from other fronts, this allowed to form a new – the Romanian Front. Nevertheless, this had a positive significance for the Russian army, since the enemy sent part of his troops from other fronts and part of his new formations, up to 30 divisions in total, to a new theater of operations. Moreover, 23.5 divisions initially operated against the Romanian armies, that is, Romania's entry into the war drew off the enemy's free forces, which could otherwise be used to conduct operations on other fronts against the Russian army or the allies.
Abstract: The article is let in to disclosure the content of scientific understanding of the processes of agrarian colonization of the Steppe region in the modern historiography of Russia and the Republic of Kazakhstan. The research procedures are based on the methodological principles of the new cultural and intellectual history, and the reliability of the conclusions is determined by a complex of historiographic sources. The author's team found that the historiographical tradition of the stated problem was formed in scientific schools of Russia and Kazakhstan under the influence of «traumatic» events of the colonial past, which influenced the Genesis and evolution of ideas about the causes, course and results of the process of Imperial incorporation of the Steppe region into Russia in the second half of the XIX-early XX centuries. In the construction of the subject part of the study, the socio-cultural and political background of the institutionalization of approaches to scientific reflection of the issue was taken into account. It is proved that a positive result of the historiographical discourse of the Russian and Kazakh scientific schools can be active communication in the scientific field, an appeal to modern research approaches and practices, including the «new history of the Empire», which actualizes the common «trauma» of colonization for the Kazakh and Russian peoples.