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«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

2 June 01, 2020


Articles

1. Anton K. Salmin
Transfer of the Chuvash to Tartars and Loss of Identity

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 387-397.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.387CrossRef

Abstract:
In the XV – XVII centuries the south-eastern and southern regions of Chuvashia were settled by Tartar-speaking Mishars from Saray and other regions of the Golden Horde. Then these settlements began to exert religious and ethnographic influence on the neighboring Chuvash. Such social pressure through the language, clothing and culture, eventually led to absorption of a significant number of the Chuvash population of the Middle Volga region and the Ural region by Tatars. A certain part of the Chuvash population shaved heads, ate horse meat, refused to keep pigs. The number of new mosques grew in the region, Quranic literature was published in mass circulations. In 1905, the Decree of Nikolai II on freedom of religion was issued, which became a sort of a signal for Tartars for attack and for the Chuvash about possible arbitrariness in religious manifestations. The Tartars hold a number of conventions in order to coordinate their propaganda activities. From 1834 to 1904 the number of Tartars increased by 150 %, mainly due to the change of faith by aliens. There were cases of fanatical behavior on the part of neophytes. Eventually, a significant part lost their identity, and some even joined the ranks of the Tartar population. As we can see, the influence of Islam on the Chuvash is great. It also has positive aspects. Islamization allowed the Chuvash to preserve the islands of settlements adhering to their original religion, and not to dissolve in Orthodoxy. At the earliest opportunity, the Chuvash, who “adopted” Islam, returned to their traditions.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590678951.pdf
Number of views: 181      Download in PDF


2. Mergen S. Ulanov, Valeriy N. Badmaev, Arya A. Andreeva
The Phenomenon of Buddhist Pilgrimage in the History and Culture of Kalmyks

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 398-406.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.398CrossRef

Abstract:
The purpose of the work is to consider the phenomenon of Buddhist pilgrimage in the history and culture of Kalmyks. The tradition of the Kalmyk Buddhist pilgrimage has a long and rich history. The main object of pilgrimage at Kalmyks was the shrine of Tibet. The Kalmyk pilgrimage to Tibet was due to the historical ties of the Kalmyk and Tibetan peoples and had not only religious, but also foreign policy goals. The Kalmyk pilgrimage to Tibet set diplomatic, research and intelligence tasks. During the Soviet period, pilgrimage became a cover for solving the state’s foreign policy tasks. The repressive policies of the Soviet state led to the complete cessation of pilgrimage contacts with Tibet. The revival of the pilgrimage traditions at the end of the 20th century was associated with the democratization of socio-political life in Russia. The Kalmyk pilgrimage traditionally had not only religious, ritual and educational tasks, but also had a political and diplomatic character. The specificity of the modern Buddhist pilgrimage among Kalmyks is the revival of the traditional religious and cultural ties of Kalmyk Buddhists not with Tibet, but with the Tibetan diaspora of India, which is why the latter became the main pilgrimage site for Kalmyks.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590679016.pdf
Number of views: 153      Download in PDF


3. Irina A. Ustinova
Russian Bishop's Nastol'nye Gramoty of the last third of the XVII century: Challenges of the Time and the Evolution of the Text

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 407-416.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.407CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of nastol'nye gramoty of Russian bishops of the last third of the 17th century as a historical source. The researcher focuses on the evolution of the text of nastol'nye gramoty. It can be traced in the course of comparative textual research of three unpublished nastol'nye gramoty of the last third of the 17th century (Metropolitan of Novgorod, Joakim (Savelov) in 1673, Metropolitan of Kazan Аdrian in 1686, Metropolitan of Krutitci Tikhon in 1696). The structure and content of the notes are the same, but their semantic content has significantly changed within the framework of the chronological segment under consideration. The article shows that the change in the texts of nastol'nye gramoty was directly related to the general political and church situation, the change in the nature of the relationship between the state and the church at the beginning of reforms of the Peter the Great. New realities brought to life a new image of the bishop. In the gramoty’s, theological passages and abundant quotations are replaced by lengthy lists of requirements for the newly delivered bishop, his duties are clearly recorded, sanctions are introduced for the bishop to violate the prescribed standards of behavior. An important trend, reflected in the text of nastol'nye gramoty of the late XVII century, there was an increase in the motive for the subordination of the bishop to the patriarch. The strengthening of the bureaucratic element and the tendency of discipline in relation to the higher clergy are being observed: to replace the understanding of the bishop from the point of view of his personification of the image of God on earth, his assessment is being formed from the point of view of the functioning of the management system, “yako nekoego uda”, part of the church’ body. All these tendencies found development and consolidation during the period of the church reform of Peter I.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590679084.pdf
Number of views: 133      Download in PDF


4. Natalia V. Kabakova, Svetlana N. Korusenko
«Strasti po Kirgapskoy Luke»: the Struggle for Land Resources in Tarskli Irtysh Land at the close of the XVII century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 417-427.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.417CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper considers the land dispute between the Tatars and Bokharan one side and Russian service class on the other side on the subject of Kirgapskaya sinuosity – a mellow meadow in the Irtysh river bend near Tara. Tarskoe Irtysh land, included into Tobol uezd of Tobol government, was a Siberian territory that was being colonized by the Tsardom of Russian during the XVII century. At that time settlements and arable lands appeared around Russian fortresses. Those fortresses surrounded by farming and hunting acreages initially belonged to the indigenous Turcic population. Despite the fact that the Moscow government prohibited land rent and purchases from the Tatars by Russian service men, the order was frequently violated. Land plot take-overs from indigenous people took place regularly. The research is based on the analysis of the document «Spisok s dela (Manuscript from the case…)» (1690), that describes the opposition between Tara Tatarian service men and Bokharan and Tara Cossack service men that lasted 14 years. The source includes both parties humble petitions, excerptions, testimony of witnesses of the events discussed and law regulations. The source illustrates the possible directions of resolutions of conflicts on land properties between indigenous people and new inhabitants of the region. It also shows the development of the processes of land management on the territory of the Tara Irtysh land in the close of the XVII century, the period of lasting settlement of the Russians on the Siberian great spaces. The outcome of the opposition was land consolidation and hunting and farming acreages by the Tatars and Bokhara and deprivation of this right of Russian Cossacks.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590679136.pdf
Number of views: 134      Download in PDF


5. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Larisa A. Koroleva, Ludmila G. Zimovets
The Public Education System in Voronezh Governorate in the Period 1703–1917. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 428-436.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.428CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the system of public education on the territory of the Voronezh province in 1703−1917 years. In this part of the article, the attempt is made to restore the picture of the activity of the public education system in the period of 1861–1900, as well as to evaluate its effectiveness. There were used as materials the statistical data from the Memorial books of the Voronezh province, extracts from the report of the minister of education, as well as the Memorial books of some educational institutions, for example, the Voronezh men's gymnasium. In conclusion, the authors state that the public education system on the territory of the Voronezh province in the period of 1861−1900 achieved the significant success. On the territory of the province there was a whole network of secondary, lower and primary educational institutions. In the period from 1862 to 1900 on the territory of the Voronezh province, the number of children studying has increased 4 times, taking into account the natural population growth. In absolute figures, this value was even higher and increased by more than 10 times from 9938 students in 1862 to 102902 students in 1900. At the end of the 19th century, the importance of primary education in the province was given to the primary schools of the spiritual department, which made up the majority of all public schools. However, despite the success of public education, by 1900 more than 75 % of school-age children still remained outside the school.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590681136.pdf
Number of views: 135      Download in PDF


6. Yuri F. Katorin, Roza G. Bukanova, Kamil Z. Nasyrov, Vladimir B. Karataev
First Steps on the Work of the Aral Sea “Envy Your Ships with Guns and that Sea Really Take Over…”

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 437-452.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.437CrossRef

Abstract:
This article reveals some aspects of the history of the Russian Empire's conquest of the Aral Sea and the study of the adjacent river arteries of Central (Middle) Asia in order to establish a trade route with India and China through the newly formed steppe South-Eastе border of the Empire. In the early 30s of the XVIII century, the General political situation on the South-Easte borders of Russia changed radically. This was due to the fact that the Khan of the Small Kirghiz-Kaysak Horde(zhuza) Abulkhair, who was at war with Dzungaria, in search of an ally, asked the Empress Anna Ioannovna to accept the Small Kirghiz-Kaysak Horde (zhuza) as a Russian citizen. This circumstance was the reason that I.K. Kirilov had the idea of redirecting the routes of international trade through the lands of the Karakalpaks and the Small Kirghiz-Kaysak Horde (zhuza), the Aral Sea, and the merchant city-pier built on these lands. It is for this reason that, since the thirties of the XVIII century, naval officers of the Imperial Russian Navy took part in the fate of Orenburg; it would seem, despite all the illogic of solving Maritime problems in the steppe region. The Orenburg region becomes a bridgehead where a foreign policy operation was being prepared and deployed to further advance Russia to the East. Based on this, the first "steppe shipyard" in the region was laid in Orenburg and the first sea ships were built, which marked the beginning of the formation of the Aral flotilla. The fate of the glorious galaxy of Russian admirals and officers of the Imperial Russian Navy was inextricably linked with the history of Orenburg. The creation of the flotilla on the Aral sea was the logical conclusion of the Russian state's geopolitical aspirations to create a land and trade route to Central Asia, and then to China and India using the sea areas and waterways of the region, and, importantly, by peaceful means.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590681221.pdf
Number of views: 174      Download in PDF


7. Timur M. Ayupov
The Role of the Bashkirs in the Development of Political and Sociocultural Relations of the Russian Empire with the States of Central Asia (XVIII–XIX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 453-462.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.453CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the degree of participation of the Bashkirs in the establishment and further development of economic, diplomatic and cultural relations of the Russian Empire and state entities of the Central Asian region – the Kazakh zhuzes, the Bukhara emirate, Khiva and Kokand khanates. On the basis of archival sources, diplomatic documents and published scientific works, it was possible to find out that all layers of Bashkir society were widely involved in the implementation of Russia's geopolitical tasks in the southeast direction: the tarkhans, batyrs, mullahs, merchants, ordinary community members. This was facilitated by ethnogenetic kinship, the similarity of languages and mentality, the unity of their religion with the peoples of Central Asia. The geographical factor was of no small importance – the border lands of Bashkiria at the turn of the 18th – 19th centuries were turned into a springboard for an attack on Turkestan. The tsarist government in every possible way encouraged the actions of the Bashkirs and generously rewarded them for their faithful serviceat the same time, they brought to the new land such an everyday culture that suited the authorities, and also served as a kind of catalyst for the beginning of its scientific research, helped to distribute printed materials.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590681281.pdf
Number of views: 143      Download in PDF


8. Vladimir N. Shaidurov, Galina I. Sinko, Yurii M. Goncharov
Gypsies in Siberia: Resettlement, Family and Economic Activity between the 18th and first half of the 19th century (Historical Aspect)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 463-473.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.463CrossRef

Abstract:
The timespan between the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries witnessed the ethnic map of the regions taking shape in the Russian Empire. In this process, essential drivers were various types of external and internal migrations. With the influence of voluntary and forced migrations, different ethnic groups emerged in Siberia, living both in compact communities and dispersed over the vast territory. Gypsies in Siberia constituted one of the ethno-dispersed groups, with first mentions dating back to the 1720s. By the middle of the nineteenth century, Gypsies had spread throughout Siberian provinces. Despite such a long record, there are virtually no academic works in the Russian gypsiology on the history of Gypsies in Siberia and the paths their development took in different historical periods. The purpose of this paper is to reconstruct certain aspects of the history of the ethno-dispersed group. It primarily focuses on the challenging sides of the group's formation, peculiar facets of its social life, legal status and specific circumstances of the economic activities undertaken by the Gypsy group in the eighteenth and first half of the nineteenth century. The foundation for the paper is built on the documents of central and regional archives (St. Petersburg, Tobol'sk, Tomsk), which become subjects of the scholarly interest for the first time.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590681340.pdf
Number of views: 125      Download in PDF


9. Igor V. Krupko, Arnabai A. Nurzhanov, Aibek Zh. Sydykov, Gaukhar A. Kaldybaeva
Archaeological Researches in the Territory of Kazakhstan in Russia during the Empire (1733–1917)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 474-485.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.474CrossRef

Abstract:
The article researches the first period of archaeological science development in Kazakhstan (on the example of specific personalities), which laid the foundation for the formation of historical and archaeological knowledge on this territory in the period from the middle of XIX century to 1917, which subsequently evolved in the Soviet period. In the system of indigenous knowledge of the local population, archaeological sites did not exist in the status of such, despite the fact that they constituted a “sacred landscape” of habitat. The process of revitalization and construction of historical and cultural heritage began with the inclusion of the Kazakhstan’s territory in the legal and sociocultural space of the Russian Empire. It’s allowed to continue its development in the Soviet period at a qualitatively different methodological level, and then in the period after 1991 to consolidate its status of ethno-historical riches, legitimizing autochthonism, antiquity and the mobilizing discourse of nation-building.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590691954.pdf
Number of views: 137      Download in PDF


10. Vladimir T. Tepkeev
Participation of Kalmyk Khan Donduk Ombo in the 1737 Campaign of the Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 486-494.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.486CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses in detail the participation of Kalmyks in the military campaign of 1737 in the framework of the Russo-Turkish War of 1735−1739. This topic was only surveyed in the works of most researchers, who briefly covered the main events of the entire war. The aim of the work is a detailed consideration of the participation in the campaign not only of Kalmyks, but also of other nomadic peoples who took direct or indirect part in it. The main source base for this work was the materials of the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia, where documents related to the correspondence of Khan Donduk-Ombo with regional administrations in southern Russia were postponed. Their analysis showed that the active and massive participation of Kalmyks in the Russian-Turkish war created the conditions when their uluses became very vulnerable to attack from the east. Throughout the campaign of 1737, Kalmyk uluses were under constant threat of the Kazakh raid. This extremely negatively affected the combat readiness of the Kalmyk army and did not allow a wider offensive to be launched in the Kuban direction. However, the Kalmyk khan nevertheless took an active part in it, being able to equip the 10-thousand-strong cavalry in the army of P.P. Lassi, successfully operating in the Crimean direction. The actions of Donduk-Ombo were mainly limited to the Kuban region. The invasion of the Kalmyk cavalry in the Kuban was a continuation of the previous campaign. Thus, the Kazakh raid at the beginning of the year on Kalmyk uluses significantly influenced the nature of the military campaign of 1738, restricting the participation of Kalmyks in it and allowing the Kuban Nogai to go on an unsuccessful counterattack.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682346.pdf
Number of views: 127      Download in PDF


11. Аndrii E. Lebid, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko, Aleksandr N. Volkov, Marina A. Ponomareva
The Officialdom of the Russian Empire: A Modern Ukrainian Historiography

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 495-507.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.495CrossRef

Abstract:
The article explores the modern Ukrainian historiography of the history of the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire. The work was mainly based on the scientific works of modern scientists Ukraine. The subject of research of these scientists was the government policy in the field of the state apparatus and the organization of the service of officials, the formation and various aspects of the development of the bureaucratic apparatus in the Ukrainian lands of the Russian Empire, questions of official and unofficial everyday life of officials of the Russian Empire. The authors noted a feature in the study of the subject field of the history of officialdom in Ukrainian historiography, which consisted in emphasizing the national-regional features of the history of officialdom of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682435.pdf
Number of views: 134      Download in PDF


12. Olga I. Golovanova
Tyumen in Educational Space Russian Empire: Initial Stage

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 508-518.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.508CrossRef

Abstract:
The article, based on archival materials, examines the origin and development of school education in Tyumen. The procedure for opening the first educational institution, the Tyumen Small Public School, is being restored; content of the educational process; household description of the school premises. Sources of financing are studied and the main items of expenditure are identified. The focus is on the staffing issue. The author comes to the conclusion that there were few prerequisites for the rapid spread of school education in Tyumen, so the process went extremely slowly, acquiring a mobilization character. The driving force in the implementation of the school project of Catherine II was the local administration, which considered the appearance of a public school in the city, first of all, as the need to fulfill the will of the monarch. The correlation of local authorities, society, and schools was mixed. Among the population of the city as a consumer of knowledge, the reform received support from clerical and retired employees. The Tyumen school played a crucial role in the dissemination of mass literacy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682477.pdf
Number of views: 122      Download in PDF


13. Artyom Yu. Peretyatko, Teymur E. Zulfugarzade
Revisiting the History of Pedagogical Thought in Russia’s South: the Pedagogical Beliefs of Major Pedagogues at the Novocherkassk Gymnasium in the 19th сentury. Part 1

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 519-529.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.519CrossRef

Abstract:
Recent years have seen the publication of a plethora of articles covering the distinct features of education in various regions of the Russian Empire. However, most of these publications mainly focus on sharing statistical information (e.g., number of schools, number of students, etc.). Issues relating to the theoretical pedagogical beliefs of major provincial instructors and the characteristics of their instructional activity remain underresearched. This paper examines the experience of the Novocherkassk Gymnasium, a major center for science and education in the Don region in the 19th century, whose teaching staff included a number of major local figures. Note that much of the material on the actual pedagogical process in the above gymnasium was gathered back before 1917, mainly in conjunction with the celebration of its 100th anniversary – with much attention, due to a lack of documents, devoted to collecting information from former students of the gymnasium. Consequently, most of the information on the educational process in said educational institution is based both on official documentation and on oral, often critical, accounts by contemporaries about its teaching staff, which included individuals proven significant to the history of the Don region. The first part of this paper covers the activity of two of the gymnasium’s seminal first-cohort instructors. One of these men, A.G. Popov, the gymnasium’s principal and author of one of the first-ever books on the history of Don Cossackdom, was an eminent practician who was the first in the Don region to endeavor to have instructors get the learning material across in an accessible and consistent fashion, for which reason he would even regularly attend classes. However, he still did underestimate the significance of special pedagogical talents and skills, keeping in the gymnasium well-educated yet incompetent instructors, some of whom spoke poor Russian. This, in large part, was associated with the distinct theoretical pedagogical beliefs dominant in the gymnasium. Some of these beliefs were born and propagandized by another seminal pedagogue – protoiereus A.G. Oridovsky, who asserted the beneficence of any education. Yet, while beliefs like these did little to motivate pedagogues, A.G. Oridovsky’s being an eminent person and an eloquent speaker did help to attract students into the gymnasium, which was a far-from-perfect educational institution.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682534.pdf
Number of views: 119      Download in PDF


14. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Dmitrii V. Karpukhin, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Aude Médico
The System of Public Education in Tiflis Governorate in the Period 1802–1917. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 530-540.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.530CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of the development of the education system of the Russian Empire during the accession and development of the Caucasus region. The geographical scope is limited to the territory of the Tiflis Governorate, chronological – 1872–1894, that is, the first stage of the period of completion of the process of integration of educational institutions of the Caucasus into the public education system of the Russian Empire. This article analyzes the statistical source data on the number of educational institutions and their “rank” level (primary, secondary, higher), accessibility level (using the example of the Tiflis Governorate) and real “vsesoslovnosti” (considering not only the state’s position, especially during the so-called “counter-reforms”, but also the mentality of the population of the Caucasus), problems and the quality of the functioning of the educational system of the province in general, and of individual educational institutions in particular. The sources included the documents such as the Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire, Acts of the Caucasus archaeographic commission, the First general census of the Russian Empire in 1897 (v. 18), “Collection of Data on the Caucasus” (1871–1885), “Statistical Code data on the population of Transcaucasia, with a complete alphabetical index of cities and villages of the region” (1894), “Proceedings of the activities and state of our educational institutions” (1870), etc.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682637.pdf
Number of views: 129      Download in PDF


15. Sergey V. Bereznitsky
Transforming Impact of Government and Private Salt Trade on Life-Supporting Technologies of Indigenous Peoples of the Amur-Sakhalin region in the XIXth – early XXth centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 541-548.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.541CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the results of the impact of salt regalia, government and private salt trade by various institutions of the Russian Empire in the XIX – early XX century on the life-supporting technologies of the indigenous peoples of the Amur-Sakhalin region, on traditional sources of life energy. These technologies were based on waste-free production and consumption of products of hunting, fishing, sea hunting, gathering of food, medicinal, and technical wild plants. The traditional food model assumed minimal consumption of salt when eating, and almost complete absence of it when preparing food for the future, in technologies for processing skins of land and sea animals, sea and river fish for the production of clothing, shoes and utensils. Archaic prohibitions on the use of salt in cooking the meat of sacred animals and in treating numerous supernatural beings were carefully observed, which, in accordance with the ancient views of the indigenous peoples, constantly and strictly ensured that people did not violate the laws of ecology and social morality. Salt was also not used for feeding domestic animals, especially dogs, which were the main draft animals on the Amur and Sakhalin, with the exception of domesticated reindeers. The main food for sledding and hunting dogs was dried and not salted fish. During the development of the Amur basin by the Slavs, as a result of the salt trade, which was an important factor in replenishing the state Treasury, the traditional life-supporting technologies of the indigenous peoples of the region were transformed, which can be traced in the food complex, dog breeding, in the system of cults, rituals and sacrifices. Gradually, but inevitably, salt has become a necessary component of the modern system of nutrition, life and life of the indigenous peoples of the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682706.pdf
Number of views: 115      Download in PDF


16. Mikhail S. Belousov, Yasyn S. Abdullaev
The Foreign Context of the Integration Process of Finland into the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 549-557.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.549CrossRef

Abstract:
This article is devoted to an important element of the Russian autocracy’s policy in the ethno-confessional area – the accession of the Grand Duchy of Finland and the establishment of its autonomous governance in Russia. Since the pre-revolutionary period, Russian historiography has tended to attribute a liberal attitude to Finland to the peculiarities of the socio-political views of emperor Alexander I, who allegedly planned to extend the constitutional order to the whole country at a certain period of his reign. Unlike Russian historians, Western experts interpret the development of the Finnish course of tsarism as a result of the prevailing international situation at that time. The authors of this study have attempted to analyze this problem from the second point of view. They conclude that the grant of Finland’s considerable share of political independence stemmed from the imperial government's desire to stabilize the situation on the North-Western borders as much as possible in anticipation of a large-scale conflict with Napoleonic France. In the future, the influence of the external factor on the actions of the authorities in the region remained, although it changed its content-from the alliance with Sweden to the fear of the revolutionary threat from the West and the struggle against the European press.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682750.pdf
Number of views: 120      Download in PDF


17. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Anatoly N. Loshkarev
Votkinsk’s Hopper Lighters for Siberia. Experience of Correlation Analysis for Biography Reconstruction

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 558-570.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.558CrossRef

Abstract:
During the First World War, the Votkinsk plant completely modernized the way-service of the Volga-Caspian Canal. He equipped it not only with hopper lighters, but also with refractory type reclamation excavators. But the plant acquired the first experience in the construction of hopper lighters by order of the Ministry of ways back in 1905, when it produced six hopper lighters for the Volga and Kama, four hopper lighters and two guard-ships for Siberia. Based on a comparison of the clerical documentation of the plant and the data of the river registers, the biographies of Siberian hopper lighters are being reconstructed. To identify the correspondence between the lists of 1923 and 1928, a correlation analysis was carried out. A technique of three-parameter correlation analysis with an implicitly expressed objective function for solving this historical problem is proposed. The analysis showed that in the period from 1923 to 1928, all the hopper lighters passed a renumbering in the same numerical range. The most probable correspondence of old and new numbers was reconstructed. On the basis of the reconstruction, the conclusion was made - despite the fact that the Siberian hopper lighters built in Votkinsk accounted for only a fifth of the way-service’s fleet (4 units out of 21) of the Ob and Irtysh, nevertheless, they became successful analogues when further ordering a series of such ships. Although the plant could not withstand the contractual terms and prices, and on the hopper lighters themselves there were many factory defects, the hopper lighters were in operation until the 1950s. And the ships built according to the Votkinsk type for a long time formed the backbone of the way-service’s fleet both on the Ob and on the Irtysh.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590682802.pdf
Number of views: 119      Download in PDF


18. Olena G. Tkachenko, Sergey I. Degtyarev , Lyubov G. Polyakova, Jasmin Gut
Ivan Klyushnikov and His Time (1811−1895): the Poet’s Spiritual Quest

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 571-582.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.571CrossRef

Abstract:
For the first time, the facts of the life and creative path of the Russian poet Ivan Klyushnikov (1811–1895) were collected, organized, and subjected to historical and literary understanding in the article. The specifics of the study were manifested in the involvement of a wide range of archival materials, authoritative printed sources, documenting the spiritual evolution of the personality. An active participant of Nikolai Stankevich's circle, Klyushnikov played a significant role in the spiritual life of Russia in the 1930s and 1940s. He influenced the formation of the worldviews of Stankevich, Belinsky, Turgenev, and many other representatives of the creative intelligentsia. Being an idealist, passionate about Hegel's philosophy, Klyushnikov considered enlightenment and thought to be the main engine of history. He believed that in the face of heightened political reaction and autocratic despotism, it was possible to improve life through spiritual influence on society. Widely educated, endowed with remarkable poetic talent, at the junction of the 30-40s of the century before last, caught between two geniuses – Pushkin and Lermontov, he managed in his own way, originally and uniquely, to convey the psychology of a "superfluous man", to show the tragedy of young idealists who aspired to good, justice and happiness, but because of the circumstances were unable to realize their dream. His poetry is the confession of a man who has gone in his development from romantic illusions to the consciousness of his insolvency in all spheres of life. Having distanced himself from public life in fact in the heyday of creativity, choosing the fate of a hermit, Klyushnikov spent about 50 years in the distant wilderness alone, having done everything to be forgotten.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590692629.pdf
Number of views: 123      Download in PDF


19. Tatiana N. Goncharova
«Objective Ally» of Russia in 1812: the Disastrous Results of Abbe De Pradt’s Mission in Warsaw

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 583-594.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.583CrossRef

Abstract:
The Abbé de Pradt, who established himself as a liberal publicist at the time of the Restoration, can hardly be suspected of sympathy to the Russian Empire. And yet he might have contributed a great service to the Russian cause in 1812. At least, Napoleon implied so much as he laid on his ambassador in Warsaw the whole responsibility for the catastrophe of the Great Army in 1812, for not supplying it with the expected military units and horses. Pradt answered this accusation in a pamphlet praising his own foresight and denouncing Napoleonic megalomania. This paper examines both cases. Basing on the study of diplomatic reports, contemporary publicists and memoirs, the author concludes that Pradt did not deliberately betrayed his master, but his inaction and pessimism did not allow him to do all that was expected from him. On the other hand, the mistakes made by Napoleon and some objective circumstances played a negative part. Napoleon’s reluctance to move from words to deeds and satisfy Polish aspirations to the restoration of “Greater Poland”, was not very stimulating for the local patriots. As for Pradt’s complains about the poor situation of the economy of the Duchy of Warsaw, which hampered his activities in the rear of the Napoleon’s army, they seem to be rather exaggerated.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590692977.pdf
Number of views: 114      Download in PDF


20. Tatiana V. Gryaznukhina, Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Larisa F. Malyutina, Lyudmila V. Belgorodskaya
Historical Stereotypes of Foreign Travelers about Russia of the XIXth century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 595-603.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.595CrossRef

Abstract:
Principles of mental interaction of Russia as one of the powerful states of XIXth century with western countries form the foundation of issues that are being reviewed in this article. Throughout the study it was uncovered that the characteristics of dialogue were largely predefined by stereotypes that formed in the conscience of Europeans back in previous centuries. Realities of XIXth century only made foreigners more confident in their correctness. Viewing Russia as uncivilized, savage and barbaric country was predefined, first and foremost, by the political order of the country. Autocratic power, serfdom, absence of legal culture – these factors, in the minds of foreigners, were enough of a basis to treat Russia and an uncivilized country. To verify these conclusions, the article uses statements and expressions of foreign travelers and writers, who visited Russia in the XIXth century. With various degrees of loyalty to the existing regime, they were unanimous in evaluating Russia as a second-grade country, having nothing of their own, only blindly copying the achievements of western culture. This, however, did not prevent them from treating the simple folk compassionately, acknowledging its talents and believe that someday it will liberate itself from its slavish obedience. Analysis of contemporary foreign studies on Russia, conducted by the authors, shows that perception stereotypes about our country, which formed in the XIXth century, are long-lasting and of stable nature. To change their vector in a desirable direction that is positive for us is one of the important tasks for the society of Russia, and it must be solved to set up constructive dialogue for the purposes of our personal safety and stable development.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590683518.pdf
Number of views: 125      Download in PDF


21. Utash B. Ochirov
1st and 2nd Kalmyk Regiments in the War of 1812–1814: Military Awards of Their Members

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 604-613.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.604CrossRef

Abstract:
Before the Napoleonic Wars, Kalmyk military units as parts of the Russian army had been used as allied forces with independent internal structures, weaponry, and officer corps. But in the aftermath of the 1771 abolition of the Kalmyk Khanate, Kalmyk ethnic troops were gradually being modified to meet common Russian standards. The year 1811 witnessed the establishment of the 1st and 2nd Kalmyk Regiments that were completely identical to Cossack ones – in terms of structure, weaponry, uniform, and funding. The units were actively involved in key combat actions throughout 1812–1814. Initially, those were attached to the 3rd Army, operating in Ukraine and Belarus. In 1813, the 1st Kalmyk Regiment got into line with the corps that sieged Modlin Fortress, and stayed there to the enemy’s capitulation. The 2nd Kalmyk Regiment as part of F.G. von der Osten-Sacken’s infantry corps (later incorporated into the Silesian Army of commanded by G.L. von Blücher) conducted warfare all across Poland, Germany, and France. They showed their worth in guerilla activities, blocking fortresses, rolling up infantry columns and squares, winning hold of batteries, and coming to deadly grips with hostile regular cavalry units, including Dragons de la Garde Imperiale, Cuirassiers, and Mamluks of the Imperial Guard. Still, war heroes of the 1st and 2nd Kalmyk Regiments were awarded military decorations very hesitantly first. Staff officers of the 3rd army doubted if non-Christians should be granted military medals with Christian symbols. The year 1813 witnessed a significant increase in the number of conferrals. However, the inefficient bureaucratic procedures resulted in that quite a number of military decorations were delivered either in bad time – or failed to reach the addressees at all. Officers of the two regiments were virtually unfamiliar with the rules of bestowals, and lots of decent award recommendations were rejected for technical reasons.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590683731.pdf
Number of views: 114      Download in PDF


22. Sergei T. Gaidin, Galina A. Burmakina
Consumption of Fish by Different Categories of Yenisei Province Population During Imperial Period

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 614-623.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.614CrossRef

Abstract:
In this article, we studied the issue of specific fish capture in Yenisei province during imperial period, which allows determining proportions of different species of fish in the nutrition of province population. It goes from works by scientists, functionaries, entrepreneurs and public activists who lived in the period under observation as well as from works written by historians who studied the period, that fish was one of the main food products consumed by the population of both Eastern and Western parts of Siberia. In between their household activities, stock breeding tribes, village people, reindeer-breeders and hunters from indigenous communities of the North went fishing for their own consumption. Depending on the efficiency of their primary household activity in different climate zones of the province, fish could be either a major or a supplementary part of day-to-day diet of families. Part of the province population, especially urban part of it, consumed fish delivered from the Northern territories of Yenisei province, where fish industry (which functioned within the framework of goods/money relations) was developed with broad use of steam vessels, as in other regions of Siberia. Unlike Western Siberia, fish industry in Yenisei province served the needs of the province population only; salted and frozen fish were the main products supplied by the industry, as there was still no well-adjusted production of canned fish and other fish products.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590683798.pdf
Number of views: 120      Download in PDF


23. Kaiyrbolat Zh. Nurbay, Bauyrzhan B. Yensepov, Nurgul A. Mukhametzhanova
Features of Kazakh-Russian Relations: Strengthening the Political Influence of Russia in Middle Zhuz in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 624-631.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.624CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the features of Kazakh-Russian relations in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries in case of the Middle Zhuz, characterized by the strengthening of Russia's political influence in the region, the reinforcement of mutually beneficial trade, economic and cultural ties. Based on the analysis of archival sources, it is concluded that the strengthening of Russia's position in the region was carried out by, first of all, the implementation of the economic dependence of the Kazakh population. At the same time, the strengthening of Russia's political influence took place in all spheres of socio-political life, including the spiritual and cultural life of Kazakh society. An objective study of the regional characteristics of Kazakh-Russian relations in the context of the political transformation of the Kazakh nomadic society will make it possible to take a fresh look at the historical experience of bilateral relations and avoid political mistakes and miscalculations in the future.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590684871.pdf
Number of views: 117      Download in PDF


24. Sergey S. Belousov
Formation of Management Bodies and Administrative-Territorial Structure of the Resettlement Village on the Kalmyk Lands of the Astrakhan Province (the second half of the XIX century)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 632-639.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.632CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the history of the formation in the second half of the XIX century of management bodies in settlements that arose in the Kalmyk lands. The features of this process on the territory of the Kalmyk ulus and the factors that influenced it are revealed, the evolution of the state administrative and territorial policy is considered, and the attitude of various state administrative structures to the solution of this issue is analyzed. The author comes to the conclusion that the formation of the administrative-territorial structure and management in the resettlement villages on the Kalmyk lands had its own specifics, due to the tasks solved by the Imperial decree of December 30, 1846, the geographical factor, and features of the process of settlement and management of the Kalmyk people. The Russian ruling circles during the period of formation in the settlement villages on the Kalmyk lands of management and administrative-territorial structure conformed their actions to the existing circumstances and the current situation, thus showing a certain political flexibility. At the same time, they were not going to abandon the main goal of administrative and territorial policy, which was to gradually unify the system of government in different parts of the state.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590693429.pdf
Number of views: 119      Download in PDF


25. Orazgul H. Mukhatova, Gulzhan B. Tleubekova, Nazgul K. Baigabatova
The Role of the Resettlement Institution of Semirechenskya Oblast in Solving the Land Issue of the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 640-651.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.640CrossRef

Abstract:
Since the end of the XIX century, the processes of spontaneous resettlement of peasants to Central Asia required an urgent decision on the part of the royal government, which realized that it was necessary to take measures to streamline the resettlement movement. In this regard, Resettlement organizations have been established in a number of regions of Kazakhstan. The purpose of this article is to use archival materials to highlight the activities and role of the Semirechye Resettlement administration in solving the land issue of the Russian Empire in the early twentieth century. Based on previously unpublished archival data, from the Central state archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the authors analyze the main activities and results of the Migration Department of the Semirechye region. The analysis of administrative documents of the resettlement institution contributes to the study of the essence and content of the resettlement policy carried out in this region. The methods of analysis and synthesis used in the study, review, and selection of new archival materials made it possible to make theoretical generalizations of the activities and contribution of the Semirechye region's Resettlement administration in solving the land issue of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590685234.pdf
Number of views: 144      Download in PDF


26. Alexandra V. Spichak
“To Educate a Woman Means to Educate the Society Itself”: the Public Idea of Female Education in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 652-662.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.652CrossRef

Abstract:
The issue of female education is one of the most important in pre-revolutionary historiography, devoted to the role and importance of the weaker sex in society. The article is devoted to the analysis of the views of Russian and foreign scientists and public figures on the possibility of granting women the right to education in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries. Particular attention is paid to the work devoted to defending the rights of the weaker sex to study in educational institutions. The authors highlighted the advantages of female education not only for the female representatives themselves, but also for their spouses, children, for families and for the motherland as a whole. The article used methods characteristic of intellectual history and the disciplinary history of science. Reliance on these methodological foundations made it possible to identify and analyze an interesting discussion in Russian social thought. In the final part, the reasons for the appearance in journalism and literature of works devoted to the problem of female education, their distinguishing features and results summed up at the end of the period under consideration, as well as the significance of the discussion of this issue are given.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590685423.pdf
Number of views: 106      Download in PDF


27. Anna I. Tatarnikova
Organization of Sanitary and Medical Service for Educational Institutions and Students in Cities of Western Siberia in the late XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 663-673.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.663CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the process of organizing sanitary and medical work that provided sanitary inspections of educational institutions and medical examinations of schoolchildren in cities of Western Siberia at the end of the Imperial period. The author characterizes the activity of school health doctors and shows their role in the sanitary supervision of schools, prevention of infectious diseases, and protection of children's health. At the beginning of XX century considerable changes were put into practice at educational institutions of the region. Medical examinations of pupils were organized for the first time, sanitary sheets were introduced so that to carry out regular monitoring of physical development of schoolchildren, some attempts were made to provide hot food and organize outdoor games. Special attention was paid to health instruction for children and their parents, and special courses for teachers on the basics of school hygiene were given. On the basis of archival sources, it is concluded that unsanitary conditions of studies at educational institutions, high morbidity of students, and frequent cases of mortality intensified the activity of representatives of the central and local authorities, doctors, teachers and concerned citizens. They did much to improve the situation and save the health of the younger generation. There was a change in the attitude of the society to lives of children and their health. Established behavioral practices gave way to an active search of ways of solving the problem of deteriorating health of students; the number of requests for official medical services was growing; new hygiene skills and habits concerning maintenance of cleanliness of one's own body, neat appearance, and prevention of infectious diseases were beginning to be formed. At educational institutions, it was common to use disinfectants and hygiene products, boil water for drinking, wash hands, air and do wet cleaning of premises.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590694050.pdf
Number of views: 104      Download in PDF


28. Ainur Zh. Gabdulina, Kulyash V. Dzhumagaliyeva, Raushan D. Akhmetova, Hadisha A. Aubakirova
The History of Development in Industrial Capital the Merchant Dynasty Pleshcheyev in Outskirts Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 674-686.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.674CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the history of commercial and industrial development on the outskirts Russian Empire in the second half XIX – early XX centuries. The author based on archival sources and documents, investigated the industrial and merchant activities in the Kazakh region on example the Pleshcheev family. One of the key places in a study to commercial and industrial development Kazakh region as a part of the Russian Empire was occupied by the Pleshcheyev dynasty, who contributed not only to the promotion of trade but also to the transformation of industrial activity to the region. In general, the development of merchant activity and entrepreneurship in the Kazakh region received the greatest development at the turn of century and this was primarily due to the imperial policy of empire. The state trying to eliminate the isolation of the Kazakh region, in order to fully control and regulate the outskirts, legislatively introduced the conditions for private ownership of industrial production The construction of railways to industrial regions, the relocation of bourgeois, peasants from the depths of Russia, the expansion of trade, and mining zones, implemented the ideas of Tsarism government. However, Russia did not seek to invest financial resources, even in the industrial, but outskirts of empire. The situation changed with course of events that changed global history, the First World War, state plans for the production of industrial production in the region begin to be developed. At the turn of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the outskirts of the empire, merchants, who were also industrialists who owned not only trade but also factories and mines, were considered higher of society. One of these was the Pleshcheyev dynasty. In the article, the author explores in detail the history of the development of industrial and merchant activities in the Kazakh steppe, using the Plescheev family as an example, in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries. This article explores one of the key occupations of the Pleshcheevs' business – the development of wine, tobacco, as well as coal production and gold mining.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590685843.pdf
Number of views: 111      Download in PDF


29. Raigul Khazretalikyzy, Khazretali M. Tursun, El'mira E. Alzhanova, Erlan E. Saylaubay
Reconstruction of the History of Turkestan Deputation of 1867

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 687-698.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.687CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper analyses the process of creating the Turkestan region conquered by Russia in the southern region of Kazakhstan as a result of the Kokand-Russian revolts. The real facts highlight the process of military colonization, as a result of which there were clashes between the adherers and opponents of the regime. The local administration organized a delegation from among the influential residents of the region who wished a desire to express gratitude to the Emperor "for getting rid of the oppression”, i.e. of Kokand oppression. The prime objective of this study is to reveal the goal of scientific reconstruction of the history of the first deputation visit from Turkestan region to Emperor Alexander II in 1867. In the course of this study, archival documents and information from the Funds of the Russian State Archives of the State Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and the State Autonomous Educational Establishment were studies and provided for the first time. The Collection of Turkistan published in St. Petersburg containing significant historical data serve as materials from the periodicals of Moscow as well. According to the history of the Turkestan deputation, the historical poem by Mailyqoja Sultankhodjauly (1835−1898), "The Journey of the Datha to St. Petersburg," published at the end of the 19th century, is an only Kazakh traditional source. In the course of the study, the formation criteria and the socio-political composition of the deputation were specified. Along with the socio-political mission of the deputation was determined and an assessment of its implementation was also presented in this paper. As a result of a factual background related to the historical reconstruction of the deputation process, the following conclusions were made: regarding the formation of a modern civilizational dialogue between Kazakhstan and Russia, in the light of the Turkestan deputation of 1967, which had special cultural and political significance. The Turkestan deputation did not have broad powers due to the political pressure from dictatorial tactics. At the same time, representatives of the ethno-elite as qadi, heads of clans, religious figures who are not able to exert a direct influence on the formation of colonial power structures, and who gave the deputation a fake character, significantly reducing its political power For these reasons, the “deputy mission” could not denounce to the authorities the demands and aspirations of ordinary people, and could not protect their interests. Despite this, the analysis of archival sources on the history of the first deputation of the Turkestan Territory is the beginning of the official recognition of a civilized dialogue between the socially and economically backward periphery and the technologically developed metropolis.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590686519.pdf
Number of views: 140      Download in PDF


30. Dmitry P. Isaev
Scientific Dynasties in Russia of the 19th and 20th centuries: Features of Social Construction and Reproduction Practices

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 699-708.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.699CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of scientific dynasty as a social phenomenon in Russia of the 19th and 20th centuries. Using the tools of interdisciplinary research practices, the author identifies the basic and evolutionary characteristics of dynasties in the context of socio-historical transformations of that period. The scientific intelligentsia of the 19th century forms a new type of personality in science, a socially attractive image of a scientist, thus creating a platform for its own reproduction as a socio-professional group. Constructive professional identity developed in the families of scientists has become a precondition for the emergence of entire dynasties which can be described with such enduring features as large numbers of children, special abilities of children, special role of parents as conductors of dynasty in educational and upbringing process, and the formation of a highly intellectual book culture. Positive family and interfamily kinship communications that created an expanded dynastic space and cultural capital played a special role in the reproduction of family traditions too. According to the author, it does not seem reasonable to view the scientific dynasties of pre-revolutionary time as social monopolies. The article also considers the Soviet experience in the construction of scientific dynasties, yet in a targeted manner and within the frames of comparative approach. Economic hardship during the initial years, the politico-ideological situation and etc. were attributed to the negative circumstances. As a result of demographic and mental shifts, other channels of the dynastic space were formed, for example, on the basis of ideological community. On the other hand, as reflected in the article, the realization of continuity through the traditional values of the previous period was happening implicitly.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590686780.pdf
Number of views: 105      Download in PDF


31. Yuliya A. Lysenko
Taxation System of the Indigenous Population of the Central Asian Suburbs of the Russian Empire and the Problem of Profitability of the Region (70 years of the XIX – early XX century)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 709-720.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.709CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the system of direct and indirect taxation of the indigenous population of the Central Asian suburbs of the Russian Empire on the basis of legal acts and records. It is emphasized that the tax policy in this ethnoregion was an important component of the process of its modernization and was implemented in line with the government's discussion on the rationalization of the economy of national suburbs, increasing the efficiency of using their resources and reducing the center's costs for their maintenance. In this regard, during the 70s of the XIX – first decade of the XX century, the state took various measures aimed at increasing the total amount of tax payments by the indigenous population of the Steppe region and Turkestan. In the end, the regional model of taxation has acquired a number of distinctive features, including: various ways of calculating and paying taxes to nomadic and settled populations, granting them preferences in paying both direct and indirect taxes. The author comes to the conclusion that the solution to the problem of profitability of the Central Asian tax model was significantly hindered by a number of objective factors: understaffing of tax authorities – land-tax inspections, imperfect legislation that restricts the ability of tax authorities to collect taxes, inertia of regional authorities, peculiarities of the structure of employment and income of the population, etc. As a result, government circles were forced to recognize that using only data on Russia's expenditures and revenues in the Central Asian region could not objectively reflect its role in the General Imperial economy. Therefore, on the eve of the First world war, they stopped looking for ways to increase its profitability by increasing direct and indirect taxation of the indigenous population.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590687601.pdf
Number of views: 123      Download in PDF


32. Ekaterina A. Nazirova, Nadezhda I. Shelkoplyasova
Tula Сity Public, I. D. Sushkina, Bank. From the History of Provincial Banks in Pre-Revolutionary Russia

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 721-733.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.721CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper is devoted to the history of urban public banks in provincial Russia in the second half of the XIX century. Their opening during the period of early industrial capitalist modernization was due to the government's desire to provide funding for the activities of local governments. The article examines the process of establishment, functioning and ruin of Tula City I.D. Sushkin Public Bank. On the bases of the information of primary documents and indicators of financial statements, the dynamics of operations of a credit institution is analyzed. It is established that in the period from 1871 to 1880 the Bank's activity was quite successful. Since 1880, there had been a violation of the ratio of accounts receivable and accounts payable. In 1883, active operations prevailed over passive ones by more than 1 million rubles. In the conditions of the industrial and economic downturn of the 1890s, a mass withdrawal of deposits began. An attempt to sell promissory notes and mortgaged property revealed the hopelessness of mortgage securities and the insolvency of debtors. Inept ruling of the Bank's management Board led to the bankruptcy of the credit institution and legal proceedings. The management of the credit institution was excluded from the merchant class, deprived of the title of “Honorary citizen of Tula city” and sentenced to six years of exile in Siberia. The sale of the confiscated property did not compensate the depositors ' losses in full. In the process of working with the documents, the authors found that the reasons for the bankruptcy were: imperfection of legislation designed to regulate this sphere of public relations, lack of proper control by the Ministry of Finance, incompetence and negligence of Bank employees.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590687672.pdf
Number of views: 114      Download in PDF


33. Boris E. Andusev, Larisa J. Anisimova, Denis N. Gergilev, Evgeny A. Akhtamov
Common Law in Household Domestic Life of Russian Old-Residents in Angara Region in the second part of XIX – the beginning of XX century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 734-741.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.734CrossRef

Abstract:
The article covers the problems of common law of peasant community in Siberia on the example of Yenisei province in the XIX – early XX centuries. The article based on the materials of State Archive of Krasnoyarsk Krai, namely, on the personal fund of the Soviet ethnographer Anton Aleksandrovich Savelyev. The fund contains a variety of materials, including verdicts of rural and volost gatherings, volost court, court proceedings. The article emphasizes the problems of peasants’ ownership of arable and mowing lands, a number of objects as a result of personal labor, compensation for material damage. The example of a trial between two hunters on the ownership of hunting prey is of interest. The authors came to the conclusion that the traditions of common law were based on a wide range of common legal, moral, religious and social beliefs. Legal regulation of the peasant communities in Yenisei region in the XIX – early XX centuries retained its complex matter. At the same time, the principle of equity was the basis for all evaluative, legal and regulatory ideas of peasants about common law. That principle was not declarative, but actually applicable as a tool for solving problems in a peasant community.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590687731.pdf
Number of views: 114      Download in PDF


34. Sovetkhan K. Igibaev
From the History of Gold Mining on the Territory of Modern Kazakhstan: the end of the XIX – beginning of the XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 742-758.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.742CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the origin and development of the gold industry on the territory of modern Kazakhstan. Gold mining emerged and developed as a separate branch of the mining industry based on the investment of private capital and free labor. The role of merchants and merchant companies in the development of gold placers and their gradual displacement by large joint-stock companies, foreign firms in the development of rich gold-bearing systems of the territory is shown. Besides the gold, an additional source of income for gold producers was the land allocated to them for mines and mines. On the basis of introduction of new archival and other sources into scientific circulation and their analysis, the author comes to the conclusion that the conditions of workers’ employment in the gold industry were mainly capitalist; however, until the mid-90s of the XIX century there were remnants of pre-capitalist features. With the further development of capitalist relations, the deepening of property and social inequality in the village, the formation of an excess of workers, there was no need for gold miners to keep cheap labor by debt bondage.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590694355.pdf
Number of views: 121      Download in PDF


35. Zhanna V. Petrunina, Galina A. Shusharina, Roman A. Gromov
Development Peculiarities of Gold Mining Industry in the Amur Region of the East Siberian Governorate General in the second half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 759-768.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.759CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper analyzes the process of gold mining industry development in the second half of the XIX century in the East Siberian Governorate General. In this paper interaction forms between local and central authorities regarding gold mining are determined. The historical sources used in the work confirm that the main factors influencing the development of the industry during the period under review were as follows: remoteness of the territory from the center, poor technical equipment, and geographical features that does not allow the use of existing methods of gold mining, lack of qualified personnel and high crime rate. Despite the difficulties, conditions for the gold mining development in Far Eastern regions of the East Siberian Governorate General have developed in the Amur Territory. Most of those conditions were taken into account in the following years. Brisk economic growth of the Amur Region stimulated scientific research in the Far East of the country concerning ethnography, hydrography, ichthyology, and cartography; and served as an impetus for the development of transport infrastructure and the construction of telegraph lines. The work raised the question of the national policy implementation in the region by the Russian government. Geological exploration provided an impetus to the development of the Russian Far East as a whole, and helped to attract and consolidate the population in this part of the country. The authors note that the experience gained can be useful in realities of the modern Far East development.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590687848.pdf
Number of views: 115      Download in PDF


36. Anna B. Agafonova, Grigorii Yu. Afanasiev
Urban Communities in the Fight Against Cholera Epidemics in the 19th – the Early of the 20th Centuries: European and Russian Experience

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 769-784.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.769CrossRef

Abstract:
In the 19th century, the Russian empire, along with European countries, first encountered cholera. Regular outbreaks of cholera with a high mortality rate were an indicator of the sanitary ill-being of populated areas. A particularly unfavorable situation with morbidity and sanitary conditions was in cities where water bodies and the territory had been systematically polluting by household waste. The question about the urban crisis caused by sanitary and living conditions was raised at the Russian's medical congresses 1890-1910s, which indicated the severity of this socio-environmental problem. This issue is given extensive attention in modern historical research on social history, the history of social medicine, environmental history, and urban history. The article is devoted to the analysis and generalization of modern research on the history of solving socio-environmental problems caused by cholera epidemics in European and Russian cities, as well as identifying possible prospects in this research area. The research's relevance is due to the growth of social tension in cities and the increased interest of the scientific community in similar problems in the historical past. The research's results allowed us to reveal the role of urban communities in the institutionalization of sanitary surveillance and solvation local socio-environmental problems.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590687904.pdf
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37. Inessa G. Adoneva
Representation of Foreign Law and Legislation on the Pages of the "Journal of the Ministry of Justice" in 1894−1904

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 785-795.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.785CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with specificity of representation of foreign law and legislation in the "Journal of the Ministry of justice" of the turn of XIX−XX centuries. The reasons of attention of Russian specialists to foreign justice was the revision of Judicial statutes of Alexander the Second, an active foreign policy of the Russian Empire, the interaction of Russian lawyers with foreign colleagues and the common problem problems. Most of the authors served in the Ministry of justice, as well as engaged in research and teaching activities. Professional education, formed in the logic of the European conceptual and categorical apparatus, made Western realities understandable for Russian specialists. The generation of lawyers who were actively published in the departmental journal shared the ideas of the sociological school, which was based on the strong relationship between law and all other spheres of society. Their worldview was also influenced by the mass codification of European legislation. It is revealed that the most frequent appeal of Russian lawyers to the French legislation was caused by similar positions laid down by the Judicial statutes of 1864, and to the German – by serious economic ties between Russia and Germany. The specifics of the justice system in England provided few opportunities for borrowing, but it retained the honorary role of the founder of modern legal institutions. Russian lawyers described the legal realities of the East from the point of view of orientalism: for Japan, France and England played a civilizing role, and for China – Russia, which was positioned as a European state. The law was accepted as a tool to set society on the path of progress. At the same time, Russian lawyers agreed with their European colleagues in the need to make the legislation as clear as possible for the population.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590687978.pdf
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38. Petr V. Fedotov
Russian Employees of School Inspectorates of the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society in Syria and Lebanon in the 1895−1914s: Motivation and Achievements

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 796-806.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.796CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is based on unpublished materials from the Archive of Foreign Policy of the Russian Empire. The research examines the activities of Russian employees of school inspectorates – one of the most significant structures the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society (IOPS) in the Middle East. The research methodology has an interdisciplinary nature – historical and psychological. The history of certain structures (Syrian school inspectorates) is described in terms of the psychological motivation of employees. The successful activity of inspectorates, achieved through the enthusiasm of individuals, was supported by the institutional foundations at the right time. Graduates of theological academies and pedagogical institutes were the most significant groups of employees of inspectorates. Almost all Russian employees were more or less successful. These achievements were reached thanks to the ambitions, intelligence and hard working of the employees who were able to solve a variety of problems in an unfamiliar environment. The employees’s personal aspirations were as well important as financial and legal security and the ability to create a family. The study of the motivation of these people and their real achievements allow us to obtain abundant empirical material about activities of Russians in the Middle East for a long time and evaluate the human capital that was invested in this project. In the Imperial Orthodox Palestine Society Russian employees were able to prove themselves as strategists, idealists, careerists, scientists, writers. Various employees’ motivations promoted the variability and flexibility in the activities of IOPS educational institutions as an important component of their success in the Middle East.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688058.pdf
Number of views: 107      Download in PDF


39. Olga V. Natolochnaya, Igor A. Gordeev, Ruslan M. Allalyev, Vladimir A. Svechnikov
The Preparation of the Bosphorus Landing Operations in 1897 and 1915 (the Operational Considerations, Calculations of Forces and Means)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 807-819.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.807CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the strategic plans for the capture of the Bosphorus Strait by the russian armed forces during the First World War. The attention is paid to the operational considerations and approximate calculations of forces and means. The attempt is made to compare the plans of the Bosphorus operation of 1897 and 1915. The unpublished archival documents of the Central state archive of the Navy (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation) were used as materials. The methodological basis of the study was the principles of systematic, historicism and scientific objectivity that are traditional for russian historiography. During the work, such general historical methods as problem-chronological methods were used, which made possible to study individual plans for the capture of the Bosphorus in their historical sequence; historical and comparative, with the help of which it was possible to compare the scope of planning operations in 1897 and in 1915. In conclusion, the authors state that in the period from 1897 to 1915 the significant re-equipment of the Bosphorus fortifications did not occur, moreover, the number of heavy guns (from 152 to 350-mm) even decreased (73 guns – in 1897, 63 – in 1915), of which the strong reduction was in the largest caliber of 350-mm: it was 6 – in 1897, and it became 2 – in 1915. The field artillery (75 mm) was also reduced from 18 guns in 1897 to 12 in 1915. If in 1897 it was supposed to use 97 heavy fleet guns and 104 field landing guns against the Bosphorus fortifications, then in 1915 152 heavy fleet guns, as well as 72 heavy and 336 field landing guns were provided for a smaller number of Bosphorus guns. In other words, the artillery fleet was increased by more than 2 times for heavy and 3 times for field guns. At the same time, the estimated number of infantry units was slightly increased: a little bit more than 3 army corps – in 1897, 4 army corps – in 1915.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688118.pdf
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40. Stanislav N. Sinegubov, Sergei P. Shilov
The Russian Fleet before and during the Russian-Japanese War of 1904−1905 Estimated by the German Naval Representatives

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 820-831.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.820CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the messages of the German naval representatives - P. Ginze from St. Petersburg, A. Hopman from Port Arthur and E. Pustau from Libau and Reval before and during the Russian-Japanese War of 1904−1905. They contained information indicating the actions of the Russian fleet and its commanders. Such information was a solid ground for solving important strategic political and military-practical tasks met by the leadership of the German Empire of that time. The first of them was to find out how potentially strong and professionally prepared Russia was in the militarily sense, so that in the end it could be considered as a possible full-fledged ally against the common enemy – Great Britain. Therefore, the prognostic component – whether Russia can win the war – passed through many reports of the German in the most distinctive way. The second important task was to take into account the experience of naval warfare in order to develop a new strategy and tactics of battles, military-technical improvement, and the interaction of forces on sea and on land. As the authors show, the German naval commissioners carefully tried to monitor precisely these specified aspects. However, for various reasons, including the inaccessibility to the required information, the bulk of the messages nevertheless concerned the search for an answer to the main question about the alliance with Russia. And the German representatives gave an unequivocally negative response on the basis of the data available to them.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688194.pdf
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41. Nataliya B. Akoeva, Leva A. Karapetyan, Oxana V. Resnik, Antonina V. Shvetsova
State Protection of Cultural Heritage in Russia during the Period of P.A. Stolypin Government: to the Issue of Legislative Regulation and Financing

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 832-841.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.832CrossRef

Abstract:
The problem of legislative regulation and financing of cultural heritage in the new political and legal conditions of transition to constitutional monarchy is considered. P.A. Stolypin himself understood that the cultural level of society depended on comprehensive reform and the future of the country. The solution to the problem was now possible with the cooperation of the Government and Parliament. Our focus is primarily on the draft law of the Ministry of the Interior and the estimated costs of the Ministry of Public Education. Although not passed, the bill is important in terms of cultural conservation thought. Its positive and negative aspects have been identified. In general, the Government followed the residual principle of budgetary financing of the noted area, which was also typical for the Doodum period. And popular representation here has fundamentally changed little. Although we note the positive interaction between these entities in relation to the draft laws of one-time and annual financing of certain measures for the protection and updating of monuments.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688269.pdf
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42. Mikhail F. Florinskiy, Denis G. Yanchenko
High Rank Bureaucracy and a Mechanism for Coordinating the Actions of Government Agencies during the Duma Monarchy in Russia

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 842-853.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.842CrossRef

Abstract:
The article studies the reasons and principles of functioning of different collegial bodies created or projected for political and economic decision-making by the government in the period from the reform of the Council of Ministers in 1905 to the beginning of World War I. During this period, Russia's top officials already played the most important role in political and economic decision-making. Of course, the bureaucratization of the political elite was also accompanied by the bureaucratization of the supreme authority. The authors of the article consider the division of powers of departments and attempts to redefine the spheres of influence in the central administrative apparatus during the Duma monarchy on the eve of the War. They describe the position and degree of influence of some royal ministers (V.N. Kokovtsov, S.I. Timashev, I.K. Grigorovich, S.D. Sazonov, I.P. Shipov, P.A. Stolypin) in this matter. The sources of the research were previously unexplored materials of the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA), published documents on the course of government meetings, in particular, Special statements of the Council of Ministers. In combination with these sources, a comprehensive analysis of the legislation in the field of public administration allows us to characterize in great detail the organization and activities of various types of interagency meetings.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688354.pdf
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43. Ivan A. Bulatov, Daria N. Kovaleva
Construction of the Imperial Identity in the Youth Organizations of the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 854-862.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.854CrossRef

Abstract:
The people of the 19th century differed from the people of traditional society in many ways. One of the most important differences was a new type of identity – nation. It replaced class and local identities. However, people could not immediately recognize themselves as part of a new community based on culture and civil rights. The new identity gradually established itself through the regular army, the press, and schools. Youth organizations have become another instrument for national identity. They, as well as Nations, were a phenomenon of the late modern period, since in a traditional society there was no problem of free time for a large number of youth. In the Russian Empire, the public authorities didn’t immediately realize the need to form a national identity. However, having realized that the Nations, including the Russian one, will develop in any case, the state decided to lead this process. Children's movements, which appeared in Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, were also involved in this process. In addition to physical development, and education of the qualities necessary for a good person and citizen, ‘Sokol’, ‘Poteshnie’ and Scout movements, in alliance with the state built the identity based on patriotism, monarchism and religion. The article examines the history of these organizations, their relationship with the public authorities and the system of national-Patriotic education.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688538.pdf
Number of views: 111      Download in PDF


44. Goran Rajović, Leonid L. Balanyuk, Alla G. Vazerova, Milica Trailovic
Patriotic Education of Russian Youth on the Eve of the First World War: Some Pages of History

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 863-870.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.863CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the patriotic education of russian youth through the organization of amusement forces and the introduction of military disciplines and gymnastics in educational institutions. There were used as sources the documents from the Russian state historical archive (Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation). In particular, the Fund 733 (Department of public education) was of interest, in which the documents were found on the international experience of patriotic education of youth, as well as the implementation of this work in russian school. In conclusion, the authors state that after the First russian revolution at the initiative of the Russian Emperor began to actively create an amusement movement. The divisions of the Poteshnye voiska were created not only at public schools, but also at army regiments, parochial schools, and also at fire brigades. In the summer, field camps were organized for them, and training sessions were held. In 1911, the first review of the funny parts of Russia was held. Since that time, the work on creating amusement parts has expanded significantly and continued until 1917. In total, several tens of thousands of people passed through the amusement movement in Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688717.pdf
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45. Timur A. Magsumov, Svetlana I. Grakhova
Representation of the History of the Provincial Merchants of Late Imperial Russia in the Contemporaries’ Everyday Narrative

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 871-877.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.871CrossRef

Abstract:
As being based on the recorded materials of oral history, the authors, while applying public history and local history approaches, aim to study the processes of representation of the provincial merchants of the Zakamsky region of Tatarstan in the historical consciousness of wide groups of their contemporaries. Oral narratives are characterized as being plot-based, traditional, dynamic, simple and easy to perceive; they have an arbitrary form and memoir-illustrative style of speaking. They follow well-known historical texts and general-audience information and contain a certain degree of artistic fiction, which is why they tend to turn into a popular mass culture product, contributing to advertising the city. Oral stories represent the images of the merchants in historical memory as simple and open in communication businesspeople, sincerely caring for fellow countrymen and city patrons who worked for the common good. With that said, the extremes of highlighting class shortcomings, satirization or iconization of reconstructed merchant images in the existence of history are completely absent in public space.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590694763.pdf
Number of views: 90      Download in PDF


46. Irina V. Pashchenko
Retrospective Analysis of the Social Consequences of the 1910 Storm in the Caspian, Black and Azov Seas

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 878-888.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.878CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the consequences of a storm in the Caspian, Black and Azov Seas in the autumn, which led to icing of ships at sea, as well as to the death of the population in coastal areas due to flood surges. The Caspian Sea storm began on November 12 and lasted for 6-7 days due to the passage of a cyclone over all of southeastern Russia. Weather conditions on the three seas were the same – the storm was accompanied by a sharp drop in temperature to negative values, which led to the icing of a significant number of ships, longboats and barges, and the death of fishermen. The tragedy that broke out in the three southern seas could have been avoided, because there was information about the impending cyclone on November 6. It should be noted that this information was available only to captains and crew members of the courts, the population of the coastal territories was not aware of it. The victims of the maritime disaster were primarily members of the crews of ships caught in the raid, as well as fishermen. There is no summary data on the number of victims, but only in the Caspian Sea their number was more than 300. Wind waves also led to a large-scale surge flooding on the northwestern coast of the Caspian Sea, as a result of which coastal areas were flooded, with fishing villages located on them, fishing establishments and Kalmyk cattle breeder settlements. Residents of the flooded territories died not only as a result of the flood, but also in the absence of suitable houses, severe weather, cold and diseases. In the research, author defines the assistance provided to victims at sea and on land: at sea, the rescue operations were organized by the administration of shipping companies, and on the coastal territories, this work was provided and supervised by representatives of regional authorities (governors). Funds for saving ships at sea were obtained from shipping companies, while the money to help the residents of coastal territories came both from the state treasury (from the Emperor and the governor), and mutual assistance funds (voluntary donations). The consequence of this tragedy at sea was the approval of the icebreaking program for 1911‒1913 in the southern seas. The materials for preparing the article were documents from the funds of the State Archives of the Krasnodar Krai, the State Archives of the Republic of Crimea, the Central State Archives of the Republic of Dagestan, as well as publications in the periodical press of that time.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688851.pdf
Number of views: 80      Download in PDF


47. Inna V. Anisimova
Foreign War Prisoners at Mining Enterprises of the Steppe Region during the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 889-897.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.889CrossRef

Abstract:
The history of prisoners of the First World War in Russia is a topic which has research actuality. The historiography of the problem revealed a number of unresolved issues, among which the situation of war prisoners in the Central Asian outskirts of the Russian Empire requires study. The article provides a comprehensive analysis of the inclusion of foreign prisoners of war in the economy of the Steppe region in 1914–1917. The materials for the preparation of the article were archival documents from the RSHA funds. The reasons for the employment of prisoners of war in the enterprises of Ridder and Kirghiz mining joint-stock companies are identified and justified, and the organization of their work is considered. It is emphasized that hiring foreigners was a forced measure in the context of the mobilization the East Slavic population of the region and the requisition of Kazakhs for rear work. The situation of prisoners of war was regulated by General Imperial legislation, but the regional authorities have repeatedly pointed out the need to make adjustments to the adopted resolutions, primarily in the field of pay for prisoners of war and their legal accountability. The management of the industry enterprises spoke about the extremely low economic effect of attracting prisoners of war to work, caused by the reluctance of the latter to work in the difficult conditions of the region, as well as the high costs of mining enterprises associated with the transportation, provision and placement of distributed workers. At the end of 1916, due to the permission to hire requisitioned Kazakhs for work, the need for prisoners of war in the enterprises of the mining industry of the Steppe region began to decrease. However, until the end of World War I, foreign prisoners of war worked in the factories and mines of Ridder and Ekibastuz.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688902.pdf
Number of views: 80      Download in PDF


48. Igor K. Bogomolov
The Russian Press on the Internal Situation in Germany and Austria-Hungary (1914−1915)

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 898-906.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.898CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the representation of the internal situation in Germany and Austria-Hungary in the Russian periodicals during the initial period of the First World War (August 1914 – July 1915). The war greatly complicated the ways and means of obtaining foreign information, the only source of which remained the official Petrograd Telegraph Agency. Another source was “unofficial information” provided daily by the Main Directorate of the General Staff. Among other things, agency telegrams and General Staff information regularly informed about the socio-economic and political crisis in the camp of the opponents of Russia. Messages about the threat of hunger, falling production, rising unemployment, ethnic hatred in Germany and Austria-Hungary were repeated daily, and their number grew and over time began to exceed the number of reports of hostilities. At first, the press fully shared this point of view and waited for the end of the war no later than in December 1914. However, by the beginning of 1915 there were more and more doubts that Germany would surrender voluntarily and that her position was hopeless. These doubts intensified in the spring of 1915, when, against the background of rising prices in Russia, the food policy of Germany in many articles was for the first time evaluated positively. In the summer of 1915, due to the heavy defeats of the Russian army, the press openly admitted that Russia was opposed by a strong enemy who would not surrender voluntarily. The recognition of the strength of the enemy has become one of the most important factors of the internal political crisis in Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590688953.pdf
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49. Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Anna S. Zhulaeva, Galina M. Lushchayeva, Nikolai R. Novosel'tsev
The Imperial Administration in Solving the Land Question in the Uryankhai Territory from 1914 to 1917

Bylye Gody. 2020. Vol. 56. Is. 2: 907-914.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2020.2.907CrossRef

Abstract:
The article provides historical information about the activities of the tsarist administration of the Uryankhai Territory in the land issue during the protectorate of the Russian Empire. We established the national principles and foundations of civil law relations, which acted simultaneously in land use on the territory of Tuva from 1914 to 1917. Russian peasants moved to southern Siberia. Land was attractive for Siberian peasants near the Biy-Khem River (Big Yenisei). The elders of the Tuvan communities distributed land between the immigrants until 1914. The immigrants executed documents called permits, which were made in writing. Cash payments were a prerequisite for all land transactions between Tuvans and peasants. Tuvans set terms for the use of land. It was a land lease. However, Russian peasants thought about buying and selling land, they were mistaken. The number of Russian peasant immigrants increased significantly during the Protectorate of the Uryankhai Territory. Cases of sale and “resale” contributed to the fragmentation of land. Russian rural elders executed transactions of purchase and sale of land. Old-timers peasants sold land to immigrants who arrived in the Uryanhai Territory recently. These cases violated the Circular of the Commissioner for the Urikhay Territory (April 1914, day 18, No. 627). The commissioner gave the village elders the right to register transactions only, the sale was officially prohibited. The elders confirmed the presence of land transactions in the Russian villages of the Ust-Irbeyskoye, the Bayan-Kol, the Shcherbakovskoye from 1915 to 1916. Wardens denied cases of official land transactions in the Russian villages of the Kemchik, the Tarlyk, the Atamanovo, the Uyuk, the Fedorovka, the Sosnovka, the Verkhne- and the Nizhne-Nikolskoe, the Berezovka. This was an unresolved land issue. This was a lack of guarantees from the local authorities and reliable protection of property rights, ownership and use of land. Peasant land disputes were a characteristic from 1914 to 1917 in the Uryanhai. Peasants-applications were considered by the Commissioner for Affairs of the Uryankhai Territory, the Chief-Border of the Minusinsky okrug (Usinsky Chief-Border) and officials of the Resettlement Department. Peasants complained to officials about the violation of their property rights. However, land disputes were resolved by the concept of the lack of private ownership of land in the Uryankhai Territory. The peasants addressed their complaints to the Yenisei governor and the Irkutsk governor-general. Claims consisted in the actions (inaction) of the local royal authorities. The land issue persisted in the social and economic conditions of pre-revolutionary Russia. There was an authoritarian regime, a vertical of power and centralization of decisions. The land issue was not resolved by local authorities in Uryanhai.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590689009.pdf
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50.
full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590694857.pdf
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51.
Cover
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1590694969.pdf
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