Abstract: The historiographic analysis of the literature on localism shows a number of unresolved and debatable issues. Problems investigated in the nineteenth century. smoothly moved into the XX–XXI centuries. This article considers the problem of localism from the point of view of the national policy on the selection and placement of personnel for the most important state and military posts. It is alleged that localism met the requirements of the study period of the Moscow state in the field of personnel policy, the formed type of public relations and state structure. On a documentary basis, the process of democratization in the selection of personnel through the involvement of persons from other classes — the nobility, merchants — in state institutions is shown. It proves a certain indifference of the Russian elite of the Moscow state to the highest central authority, the presence in the ruling elite of a significant layer of the national element, and not only from the population of lands annexed to the state. It was the foreign element that gave color to the struggle for power. The issue of the struggle of the boyar class for a place in the state apparatus, not only between clans, but also intra-clan disputes, is investigated. Sufficiently civilizational ways of resolving conflict situations in matters of localism are shown — judicial decisions, skillful state policy of the tsar when appointing to posts. Based on an analysis of the tsar’s decrees and the verdicts of the boyar’s Duma, the central government’s policy is shown with respect to persons who dishonestly perform official positions or who do not patriotically serve the Fatherland. An opinion is expressed on the reasons for the conflict-free departure from the principle of parochialism in the personnel policy of the Moscow state at the end of the 18th century.
Abstract: The article pays attention to the problems associated with the organization of material and technical support of daily life of military special educational institutions in Russia, which trained non-commissioned officers, officers and other specialists for artillery and engineering troops, created and operated during the XVIII century. The order, features and sources of financing of the maintenance of military educational institutions, and also the sizes of the monetary maintenance and other types of providing pupils in these institutions are defined. Special attention is paid to the characteristics of the problems faced by the state in providing the activities of military special schools and cadet corps, designed to solve the important state task of training domestic special personnel of various profiles and purposes, necessary to strengthen and maintain a high level of combat readiness and combat capability of the Russian artillery and engineering troops and the army as a whole.
The authors draw attention to the fact that, in the course of organizing a quality educational process in military educational institutions organized and operated in the period under review, not only the teaching staff of these institutions were important, but also the teaching tools used such as: educational literature (textbooks, statutes, manuals of an official and unofficial nature, military-historical works) and teaching AIDS (artillery and engineering models, devices and tools, rulers, circulars, etc.). It is noted that a significant improvement in the organization and order of financing the content of the newly created in the second half of the XVIII century. military educational institutions, which trained personnel for artillery and engineering troops, had a positive impact on the development of military special education and the quality of both military and civilian specialists. For the first time, the article introduces many archival sources into scientific circulation.
Abstract: The article discusses the participation of the Kalmyk cavalry in the military campaign of 1739 as part of the Russian-Turkish war of 1735–1739. The endowment by the Russian government with the khan title Donduk-Ombo created the conditions for the active participation of the Kalmyks in the war. Since 1736, the Kalmyks annually made trips to the Kuban, where local Nogais from various tribes suffered blows. The campaign of 1739 did not stand aside, when the Kalmyk cavalry led by Khan again invaded the left bank of the Kuban and subjugated the Kundra Nogai and certain Circassian clans. The invasion was accompanied by the seizure of livestock and horses, and the local Nogais were forced to hide in hard-to-reach places. About three thousand Kalmyks were part of the Don Army Field Marshal P.P. Lassi, and the Kuban horse group of Kalmyks and Don Cossacks covered the Russian flotilla from the Kuban coast. In general, the military campaign of 1739 did not bring Russia significant territorial acquisitions, and the Don Army, P.P. Lassi and the Kalmyk cavalry only disturbed the rear of the Crimean Khanate without much military success.
Abstract: The article deals with the impact of the legislative framework of the Russian Empire on the evolution of the hunting industry of the indigenous peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East of Russia. Traditional trades of the Siberian natives (hunting of taiga ungulates and fur animals, game, extraction of marine animals, fishing) not only were and are the basis of their system of activity, but also are strongly connected with features of their mentality, with a complex of beliefs, cults and rituals, ethics and many other layers of Outlook. Therefore, the external foreign cultural and ethnic influence in the form of introduction of European, Slavic and Russian laws on regulation of hunting terms and production volumes of commercial animals into the traditional economic system has had a significant transformative effect. The impact of European culture in the form of legislative acts on the indigenous peoples of the Northern regions in the field of crafts depends on the mentality of the contacting ethnic group, its social organization, the level of development of military Affairs, economic and cultural type, the degree of consolidation, the presence or absence of civil authorities, the nature of interaction with the Russian authorities, and other ethno-cultural characteristics. Some aspects of this impact led not only to the emergence of new types of hunting weapons among the natives, equipment, equipment, but also to the emergence of industrial hunting that was not peculiar to them before, led to a change in the ancient hunting worldview, manifested in fishing technologies in the form of ecophobic components.
Abstract: The article mainly concentrates on the state religious policy of the middle of the 18th century – the least studied period in the process of formation of Russian religious tolerance in the early Modern Time. The process of interaction between the Russian authorities and the old believers-re-emigrants in the New Russia investigated for the first time in historiography. The author characterizes the process of inclusion of settlers in the southern program of re-emigration of Old Believers and their integration into the system of Russian orders on the basis of little-known unpublished materials. Political and administrative factors that stimulated or, on the contrary, hindered the mass return of the fugitive population to their homeland also marked in this article. Most attention is paid to the Collegium of Foreign Affairs, which contributed to the establishment of mutual understanding between the local provincial authorities and the contingent of immigrants in the Russian Empire and neighboring and nearest countries in the last year of the reign of Empress Elizaveta Petrovna and a short time on the throne of Emperor Peter III. The author states in conclusion that the principles of religious liberalization, which then gave an impulse to religious tolerance and formed the basis of the religious policy of classical "enlightened absolutism" in Russia, were mainly formed in the studied time.
Abstract: The article attempts to determine the proportion of officials who at the end of the 18th century used obsolete Ukrainian and Polish ranks in the context of the transition to the Russian imperial bureaucratic system. The dynamics of changes in the number of such employees during the last quarter of the eighteenth century was investigated. The authors identified the reasons why employees preferred obsolete titles to new ones. First, the earlier these officials provide to their owners a higher socio-political and social status. Secondly, representatives of local service elites at the end of the 18th century often did not understand their place in the social and bureaucratic system of the Russian Empire.
The work uses published sources (for example, regulations from the Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire and data from the annual Mesyatseslov) and little-known archival documents from the Central State Historical Archive of Ukraine in Kiev.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the development of Islam in Kazakhstan in the Russian Empire. The authors, relying on a wide range of archival materials and publications of modern times demonstrated the evolution of Muslim views of the Kazakh population from its complete rejection to the struggle for their rights in freedom of conscience and religion. Tatar, Bukhara, Tashkent Ministers of religious cult played an important role in the spread of Islam in Kazakhstan. Among the issues covered in the article, special attention was paid to the analysis of the content of the Imperial policy towards the Kazakh population, namely Russification and Christianization, in the prohibition and closure of spiritual and educational institutions, in preventing the construction of architectural religious buildings.
The government of the Russian Empire regulated the activities of Muslim clergy, as well as controlled the pilgrimage of Muslims. Such strict state control eventually led to the emergence of protest moods and the opposite transformation of the religious Outlook of the Kazakhs, who converted to Islam largely as a result of administrative islamization.
Abstract: The article deals with the problems of legitimacy, legitimacy and legality, and legitimization of power in relation to the period of monarchical rule, based on the political and legal platform of N.M. Karamzin, who was at the origins of russian conservatism. The system of legitimism represented in history not only the historical right of power to resolve issues of the state and defend sovereignty, national borders, and justify the legitimacy of dynastic power, but also the legitimacy of power in General. The authors' analysis of N.M. Karamzin's views touches on certain aspects of monarchical legitimation. The autocracy of the concept of legitimism is the root principle of the Russian state order. The historian proposed the implementation of Republican ideas through a monarchical form of government, while advocating the combination of the patrimonial model of power and the principle of legality. From the point of view of N.M. Karamzin, the legality is compatible with any method of government. Any state is based on the rule of law. The attempts to limit autocracy in its understanding contradict the natural nature of russian law, lead to lawlessness and anarchy. He recognized the freedom of man within the limits of the laws. N.M. Karamzin considered legitimism in the traditional sense as loyalty to the root laws and the truth of the monarchy. The authors conclude that the position of N.M. Karamzin can be called a political and legal justification of the monarchical power. His views were the starting point for subsequent discussions on individual approaches to the concept of legitimacy. The main source of the publication was N.M. Karamzin's work "A note on ancient and new Russia in its political and civil relations".
Abstract: This article discusses one of the aspects of the ethno-confessional policy of the Russian autocracy, namely the process of incorporating the Kingdom of Poland into the Russian Empire. The historiographical review shows the main vector of the genesis of Russian historiography on this issue: from the pre-revolutionary period, there is an opinion about the Polish Constitution as one of the projects in the series of constitutional intentions of Emperor Alexander I. The article attempts to propose a different interpretation of this phenomenon. The importance of the press and public opinion in the political life of Europe in the period after the Napoleonic Wars is noted. It is shown that Alexander I after the Vienna Congress was at the zenith of fame, and hence his next steps on the Polish question are explained by the desire to continue to maintain the status of the European monarch on the Russian throne. At the same time, the emperor’s famous Warsaw speech was received very coolly by publicists. At the same time, a series of events begins in Europe, and the articulations of Russian diplomats actualize the chimera of the threat to the monarchies from the global conspiracy of secret societies – it was this myth that led to the curtailment of the emperor’s liberal undertakings.
Abstract: The article deals with the development of the primary education system on the territory of the Kuban
Cossack army in 1803–1917 years. This part paid attention to the most difficult period from 1908 to 1917. (the preparatory work for the introduction of all-russian primary education).
There were used as materials the reports on the state of the Caucasus educational district, unpublished archival materials from the funds of the Ministry of public education and the Holy Synod, which are stored in the Russian state historical archive (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation), and russian scientific literature on the history of public education in the Caucasus, and in particular in the Kuban region.
In conclusion, the authors state that the system of public education in the Kuban region in 1909−1917 had its own extensive network of secondary, lower and primary schools. During this period, much was done to train teachers for primary schools, and the number of gymnasiums and higher primary schools increased dramatically. The public education system has risen to a higher level of its development and laid the groundwork for the creation of the first higher education institution in the region. Despite the success in the field of universal primary education in the Kuban by 1917 there continued to be a significant number of girls who were not enrolled in public schools.
Abstract: The article discusses protest actions under the leadership of Zholaman Tlenshiev that occurred intermittently in 1822−1840 in Kazakhstan and played a significant role in the formation of its north-western borders at a specified time. It was one of the very first and largest speeches against the policy of the tsarist empire. In the article based on archival sources describes previously unknown details of this uprising. The main sources are materials from the central archives of Kazakhstan and the Russian Federation. Briefly, the prerequisites and the main causes of the uprising, which were directly related to the socio-political crisis of the first decades of the ХІХ-th century in Western Kazakhstan, are given. The main prerequisites of protest actions were the acute social and political crisis in the mentioned region which arose mainly due to external factors. The power of Khans in the Younger Zhuz of Kazakhs was weakened severely; significant figures were not allowed to govern. As a result of the incapacity of Khans approved by the central authorities, internal differences between clans increased, and at times the steppe was engulfed by internecine and mass conflicts. Kazakh communities in the province were subjected to great confusion; murder of one of the khans as a result of unrest did not bring the expected calmness. Sultan Aryngazy, who later established absolute order and calmness in the steppes, was not allowed to govern. In addition, in the same years, the Novo-Ilets Line begins to be created in the northern border of West Kazakhstan, which becomes the main reason of protest actions under the leadership of Zholaman. These actions constituted an armed struggle and were one of the important events of that era. These events in the 20−40s of the XIX century in West Kazakhstan remain poorly studied. During this period, the khan power weakened by the central administration was eliminated, the colonization of the Kazakh steppes proceeded to the next step. Demanding their ancestral territories and the legal ruler, the struggle of Zholaman to the last supported the strong and legitimate power in the Kazakh steppes, the integrity and unity of the Kazakh communities.
Abstract: In this work, the authors continued the study of modern historiography of the history of the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire. The work was mainly based on the scientific works of modern scientists from Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine. The subject of research of these scientists was the questions of official and unofficial everyday life of officials of the Russian Empire.
Particular attention is paid to the works devoted to the study of stereotypes, values and morals characteristic of a bureaucratic environment. Many studies have studied the system of motivation, rewards, punishments, and other issues related to the daily routine of civil servants in the Russian Empire.
The authors once again noted the unevenness in the study of the subject field of the history of bureaucracy. The block of scientific papers in which general theoretical questions of the formation and functioning of the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire are highlighted is very large. At the same time, little attention is paid to the study of the life of officials, in particular, living conditions, leisure and entertainment, family and marriage relations.
Abstract: Based on the paperwork of the Votkinsk plant, the list of shipbuilding facilities was reconstructed, according to which financing for their construction was carried out. All of them appear in technical reports, and various components and semi-finished products went to them. The list of ships that were in correspondence with various authorities is more extensive, but there is no evidence that the plant was building them. In parallel with the ship lists of the fleet and river registers, an operational list of Votkinsk’s building ships of the period 1846–1861 was compiled. Both lists are combined and superimposed on the order numbers of the shipbuilding establishment of the plant, and an estimated sequence of ship numbers is compiled, which were precisely built at the plant and then precisely operated.
Analysis of the list showed that in the pre-reform period, the plant worked on 51 orders, as a rule, of low complexity and quality of construction. These are either non-self-propelled vessels, or steamboats without main mechanisms. Nevertheless, the shipyard is expanding shipbuilding, making up to a dozen ships in some years. These are all orders of the War Department with a small share of ships for their own needs. Nevertheless, despite the low quality, the constructed ships are cheaper than those bought abroad and delivered by private enterprises, which is why in 1861 the plant receives the largest order of the Military Department in its entire history, having carried out a complete modernization of the technical facilities of Kronstadt and St. Petersburg ports.
Abstract: The article focuses on the influence of the state Yettishar in the 60-70s of the XIX century on Kazakhs and Kirghiz who were in the possession Turkestan Governor-General of the Russian Empire. For the purpose of disclosing this problem, the materials of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the Central State Archives of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Central State Archive of the Kyrgyz Republic were used.
The formation of the state of Yettishar had a significant impact on the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz of the Russian Empire. Archival documents prove that as a result of negotiations between the Turkestan Governor-General and the ruler of Kashgaria, a number of issues on the resettlement of Kazakh-Kyrgyz aristocrats in East Turkestan were resolved. This is because the Russian Empire wanted the existence of a buffer state between the two Qin empires and great Britain. It can be said that the political processes taking place in Kashgar were under the control of the tsarist government.
Representatives of the Kazakhs and Kirghiz, who opposed the policy of the tsarist government in Central Asia, went to the state of Yettishar for support. Yakub-Bek was pressed into the service of the Kazakhs and Kyrgyz, who moved from the possessions of the Russian Empire in the state of Hattisar. Some members of the noble Kazakhs and Kirghiz had held high positions in the state Hattisar.
However, they failed to achieve their goals due to internal strife and the restoration of The Qing Empire in Kashgar. The changing policy of the Kashgar rulers contributed to the formation of a diverse opinion among the Kazakh-Kyrgyz nobility who served them. One group of aristocrats decided to return to the Russian Empire, others thought to continue the received directions. This was used effectively with the tsarist administration. Later, due to the termination of the existence of the state of Yattishar, many of the Kazakhs and Kirghiz returned from Kashgaria to their homeland.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the last major rebellion of the Don Cossacks in pre-revolutionary period in 1862-1863. Few historians who investigated this plot believed that the confrontation of the Don ataman M.G. Khomutov and his chief of staff A.M. Dondukov-Korsakov was the most important prerequisite for this rebellion. But the letters of the don ataman to his chief of staff, stored in the Russian state historical archive, paint a completely different picture. It follows from them that in 1862 M.G. Khomutov was poorly oriented in the current situation and was friendly to A.M. Dondukov-Korsakov. Ataman knew about the discontent in the stanitsas, but did not connect him with the anti-government propaganda of his chief of staff. On the contrary, he hoped that A. M. Dondukov-Korsakov would be able to calm the worried Cossacks thanks to his authority. Only a few months after leaving office, ataman changed his mind under the influence of the Minister of War D. A. Milyutin. These facts indicate the need for a more detailed study of the topic, and the inaccuracy adopted in the historiography of the interpretation of events.
Abstract: The study of the activities of the Central Department of justice of the Russian Empire to improve the judicial system of the national suburbs allows you to get a more detailed idea of the relationship of the General Imperial legal norms with various local legal provisions, to trace the adaptation of national judicial institutions to local conditions. In addition, the article aims to identify essential principles the outskirts of the judicial policy of the authorities, as well as the influence of local conditions on their adjustment in the implementation process in these regions, therefore, generalization of experience of application of advanced legal institutions in difficult conditions in the periphery of Imperial territory is the subject of this article. In the study the authors come to the conclusion that the General policy of the government in the process of modernization of the Russian Empire in the national outskirts of the period under review was the desire to unify local institutions, including the judiciary, with national institutions. However, the Ministry of justice, responsible for the administration of justice almost throughout the Empire, had to take into account all the expected consequences in carrying out judicial reforms and addressing the identified shortcomings of the judicial system in the national suburbs.
Abstract: The article is about the consequences of the fire in 1869 in Yeniseisk (Krasnoyarsk Territory) basis on a comprehensive study of wooden buildings (70 monuments of wooden architecture) via historical, historical-architectural and dendrochronological methods. A paired analysis of various sources showed that: officially dates in passports and electronic databases are scattered and inaccurate; the dendrochronology method allowed us to date buildings before and after fire planning of Yeniseisk. As a result, four construction periods of wooden architecture were found: 1) “pre-fire” - I quarter. XIX century. (8 % of buildings) – five-wall small houses and six-walls on a high glazed basement under the hip roof with elements of folk architecture and classicism; 2) "post-fire" 70-80 years of XIX century. (54 % of buildings) - high eclectic houses often on a stone basement with a glazed loggia, a truss hip roof with a gable pediment on the edge of the house, large windows with brightly decorated platbands; 3) the end of XIX (22 % of buildings) - generally administrative buildings and fairly democratic two-story houses with glazed edges, the decor is less bright; 4) the first quarter of the XXth century (16 % of the buildings) – single-storeyed mansions with elegant sawn decoration of the cornice and trims. Thus, the obtained unique information allowed us to understand the nature of planning before and after the fire of Yeniseisk. The results of the article will be useful to historians, cultural scientists, architects, archaeologists, as well as anyone interested in the history of Siberia and the city of Yeniseisk.
Abstract: The article is devoted to study the social history of science and technology in Russia on the example of satirical publications of the 1870s−1910s, which published stories, sketches, notes and cartoons, which were a response to such realities of the era as the domestication of technology, belief in miraculous inventions, human defenselessness before the onset of technology and obscurantism of the uneducated audience. The source base of the research was the materials of satirical publications published in the Russian Empire (“Budil’nik”, “Strekoza”, “Schut”, “Iskra”, “Satyricon”, “Oskolki”). The author comes to the conclusion that science and technology were integral heroines of domestic satirical publications of pre-revolutionary Russia. They gave writers and artists a lot of new bright metaphors and images. On the one hand, in the reviewed publications can be found skepticism about the potential for technical innovations to change the world for the better, mocking fanatical inventors and had a real basis of the fear of technical innovations, able to kill and maim. At the same time, the publications were consistent advocates of knowledge and education. The objects of criticism were superstitions, prejudices, belief in pseudoscientific ideas and obscurantism, and the vices of the uneducated public. Various aspects of “shadow science” and the careerism of pseudoscientists were also exposed.
Abstract: The article based on the materials of the Russian State Historical Archive and the Russian State Historical Archive of the Far East characterizes the migration policy pursued by the central and regional authorities in the Far East of the Russian Empire. The active phase of peasant migration from European Russia and Siberia mainly touched upon the period of Stolypin transformations. While in the Amur region Russian colonization carried out in the territories prepared and relatively well developed in terms of infrastructure, Kamchatka and Sakhalin lacked attention and funding from the authorities. The Sakhalin Katorga, which lasted for more than 20 years, even after its abolition had an impact not only on the legal status of local residents, but also on the funding of the new settlers. The porto franco system, as an integral part of the policy of economic support for the Far East suburbs, accompanied by cheap labor from Northeast China since the 1870s and 1880s. It is noteworthy that all attempts to abolish porto franco accompanied by numerous discussions about the "yellow danger" and the need to strengthen Russian influence in the region.
Abstract: One of the interesting pages in the history of the Middle East is the "big game" in which, as in a whirlpool, were drawn into the major European countries – England and Russia. Persia was caught between the Russian hammer and the British anvil. The struggle for Persia was very fierce, the governments used all means and methods to turn Iran into their colony. Although the motives were different for Russia and the UK, but the goal was the same. Each power tried to achieve its own hegemony in Persia through a combination of means, the main of which were: influence over the Shah and his chief Ministers, trade, concessions, intimidation. In order to use any of them freely, it was necessary for England and Russia to secure access to as much of Persian territory as possible, while at the same time trying to limit the rival. In order to outdo its rival, the British government sent Henry Drummond Wolff as her Majesty's Ambassador. He had great authority and influence, was a zealous supporter of Eastern diplomacy. As the British envoy to Tehran, he was able to conclude treaties with the Shah of Iran, which granted Great Britain a number of very favorable concessions, such as the permission of navigation on the Karun river for British ships, the opening of the Shahinshah Bank, and so on.
The article attempts to analyze how the mission of Henry Wolff influenced the course of the "big game" and how England became the main player on the Middle Eastern chess Board by the beginning of the twentieth century.
Abstract: One of the components of understanding the historical mentality of the people is such a component as patriotism. Understanding the essence of this phenomenon, the level of its social self-reflection, is inseparable from its relationship and interdependence with the concrete historical conditions of society. It is fundamentally important to consider the social reflection of patriotism on the example of its components such as scientific understanding of the phenomenon in society and the reflection of the level of its perception in the practice of public administration. This article examines the origin of patriotism as one of the components of social practices in pre-revolutionary Russia and its evolution in the theoretical research and practical activities of public administration of General and sectoral nature. The task is to trace the dynamics of changes in the place and role of patriotism in the context of the development of the General political situation in the country. On the example of the results of the analysis of the works of pre-revolutionary researchers and little-known official materials of normative and administrative nature, the conclusion is made about the Genesis of patriotism in pre-revolutionary Russian society. The author traces the phases of its formation as an object of scientific study with constant correction of its content, as well as a goal-setting factor of the state youth policy of pre-revolutionary Russia, which coincides with the formation of this new direction of public administration.
Abstract: The article is devoted to analysis of the types of violations of discipline, law and order by students of the Imperial Tomsk University in the pre-revolutionary period. The specificity of the legislation regulating the order in the student community was revealed. The work of law enforcement – the inspector of students, the professor's disciplinary court was analyzed, their role and functions in maintaining deanery were determined. The types of violations were also investigated and detailed examples of them were given, based on archival materials of the State Archive of the Tomsk Region and the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan, that were not previously introduced into scientific circulation. In this research work we have founded that the characteristic features of the violators were the denial of guilt, unwillingness to take responsibility for their actions, an unhealthy sense of confidence in their rightness. As a result, a negative student image was formed in Russian society at the beginning of the XX century. Nevertheless, the number of cases, that were shaded the noble status of students was small in comparison with the general number of students, which indicates the absence of a ubiquitous and topical nature of the problem.
Abstract: The article on the basis of studying of archival materials and the regulatory framework addresses issues of organization of spiritual life of the Muslim community of the Yenisei province in the second half of XIX – beginning of XX century. The Muslim population, representing a significant percentage of the population of the Russian Empire, could not stay away from state control. Even during the reign of Catherine II, the Orenburg Mohammedan spiritual assembly was created in order to control the Muslim population of the country by the state. Being a public authority, funding it as the content of the parish was fully attributed to the parish community. These measures did not contribute to the development of Muslim parishes, and especially the creation of new ones. Material difficulties arising in the life of Muslim communities required the introduction of new rules and norms for the functioning of the community. In the XIX century the question was raised about the introduction of vakuf property and its legalization in the Russian legislation. However, this issue was never resolved, which also hampered the development of Muslim parishes in the Yenisei province. A special category of Muslims living in the Yenisei province were prisoners who, despite the "Normative project" adopted in 1860, experienced restrictions on the part of the state in the implementation of religious rights. Often the restrictive measures imposed were purely subjective. As a result, despite some attempts by the state to demonstrate a loyal attitude towards the Muslim clergy, the country's population professing Islam, up to the beginning of the 20th century experienced restrictions on religious rights.
Abstract: Using ego-documents as the base, the authors are trying to study the process of opposition formation in students of the late-imperial Russia, focusing on the identification of what had inspired the protest actions, as well as methods and techniques employed by representatives of revolutionary parties to target young people.
The main reasons for the involvement of Russian students in active protest at the turn of the XIX−XX centuries included their lack of rights, financial constraints, being not only actual, but also clearly recognized by young people. This made the harsh school regime even more severe, thus leading to strengthening the influence of revolutionary parties in young people. Among the factors shaping the young people’s worldview was the modernist family and its environment that included e iled revolutionaries as well. Active reading and the joint singing of revolutionary songs contributed to embracing lofty ideals and formed the spirit of camaraderie especially in conditions of crowded living in private apartments and boarding schools, participation in the work of revolutionary circles.
The revolutionary parties clearly recognized these factors, having developed a set of measures to involve students in the protest movement as well as in their ranks. Starting from conversations on abstract topics that included young people’s everyday hardships, the revolutionaries’ leaders, being attractive due to their set of moral principles and sometimes appearance, proceeded to proposals for building a new world after overthrowing the current regime, and from that they would turn to involving young people directly in supporting underground activities.
Abstract: At the end of the 19th century, the Russian tsar built a “T”-shaped railway that runs through northeast of China. It started from Manzhouli in west, to Suifenhe in the east, and Lushunkou in the north. Its construction was in consideration of factors such as expanding the influence of the Far East and consolidating the strategic position of the Yellow Sea region of China (referred to as «Chinese Eastern Railway»). During the construction of the railway from 1897 to 1903, a large number of railway station areas were continuously developed and constructed, and a new type of settlement in the northeastern China due to the road was born. The urban form produced during this period has had a profound impact on the subsequent development of urban areas in Northeast China. The construction method of the early settlements and the urban form has the same characteristics. At the same time, due to their own environment and location advantages, each town has many unique characteristics. This paper takes the second-class railway stations of the Chinese Eastern Railway as the research objects, and sorts out the planning information of different towns: structural layout, road network structure, square form, street design, urban texture and landscape greening, summarizing town planning mode of the second-class stations, providing reference for related research.
Abstract: The article reveals the main functions of the parish clergy of the Penza diocese and their changes in wartime conditions (for example, the Russian-Japanese war of 1904−1905). An attempt is made to highlight the range of duties performed by the clergy, as well as the features of their service during the war. It is concluded that the clergy had a very wide range of responsibilities, which increased in wartime.
The main duties of the parish clergy included service in the Church, preaching, preaching, and missionary work. During the war, in addition to their direct duties, the clergy performed, first of all, information and moral and educational functions, as well as duties related to the appeal of parishioners to donate to the needs of wartime, the organization of hospitals for sick and wounded soldiers, providing assistance to families affected by military actions. The main sources of the research were data from the periodical press (1904−1905) and materials from the Russian state historical archive.
Abstract: The article is an addition to a series of works on the correlation of the armored forces in the Russian-Japanese war of 1904−1905 and is devoted to the analysis of the quality and power of the "au iliary" forces of the fleets, namely, the armored deck (light) cruisers of the japanese fleet and the ratio of forces and tactical and technical characteristics of torpedo-boats and destroyer squadrons of both sides. The article examines the tactical and technical characteristics of all light cruisers of the fleet of the Land of the Rising Sun, and also provides a comparison with the closest "relatives" in the fleet of the Russian Empire. A brief classification of ranks in the british, russian and japanese navies is given, as well as a justification for the membership of the light cruisers Teikoku Kaigun to a certain rank, since this issue is debatable in historiography. The article also analyzes the mine-torpedo forces of the parties. The design and technical features of russian types “Sokol”, “Forel'”, “Kit”/“Kasatka”/“Bditel'nyi” and “Buinyi” (“Groznyi” type is not investigated, since the ships of this type have not come into operation by the beginning of the war) of destroyers are highlighted, as well as their japanese vis-à-vis – the destroyers types “Murakumo”/”Sinonome”, “Ikadzuti”/“Sazanami”, “Sirakumo”, “Kharusame”; compares their design and real characteristics, e plores potential and real possibilities both in terms of solving their diverse tasks, and in open combat confrontation. A few words are also given to the ship that proved to be the most effective in terms of damage caused – a specialized mine transport (barrage) of the “Amur” type. Each analyzed type of vessel is accompanied by a corresponding photo with a brief description. We study some controversial issues in historiography, such as used artillery and ammunition, rank classification, evaluation of the effectiveness of the project and its technical implementation with justification of our point of view. It is also highlighted the conceptual features of the warring parties, the role and place of auxiliary forces in the views of the russian and japanese naval leadership. Due to the limited scope of this work, the analysis of the destroyers of the warring parties is not given.
Charity Gatherings of the Population of the Tobolsk Province during the Russo-Japanese War: based on the Materials of the Publications “Tobolsk Provincial Gazette” and “Siberian Trade Newspaper” (1904–1905)
Abstract: The authors of the article turn to the study of a little-studied topic devoted to donations in the Tobolsk province of the Russian-Japanese war. According to the All-Russian Census of 1897 in Tobolsk province, one of the largest in the Russian Empire by territory, there were 1,443,043 inhabitants. From the first days of the Russo-Japanese War in the Siberian outback, people began collecting donations for the war.
The authors focus on how the mass charity movement was reflected in the unique sources of factual material – the printed editions of the Tobolsk Provincial Gazette and the Siberian Trade Newspaper. A study of the newspaper chronicle allowed the authors to identify the key areas of charitable gatherings, the dynamics of cash contributions and material assistance, and to calculate the total amount of donations received from the population of the Tobolsk province.
Abstract: The article deals with the little-known pages of the Persian revolution of 1905–1911. The authors pay attention to the process of escalation of violence in 1909, the driving forces of the revolutionary movement, as well as the activities of Russian diplomatic missions.
There were used as materials the unpublished documents from the Central State Historical Archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia). The documents from the central state institutions of the Russian Empire were used as sources, namely, the documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, General Consulate in Tabriz, consulates in Ardabil and Urmia, the departmental correspondence of the Russian border units with the office of the governor-general of the Tsar in the Caucasus and etc. The sources of personal origin were also applied as materials.
In conclusion, the authors state that another round of tension began in the northern regions of Persia in September 1909, the nomads-shahsevens sharply intensified, roads were again blocked and trade between Russia and Persia was completely stopped. The local authorities in a number of Persian regions were unable to resist the nomads, and therefore russian troops were introduced to the northern regions of Persia at the end of October 1909. The arrival of army contingents from Russia stabilized the situation, the troops secured the military road and had several clashes with the shahsevens. By December 1909, the situation was so stable that it became pointless to keep significant military forces in Persia and they began to be withdrawn to the Caucasus.
Abstract: The World War I was a global conflict in which the population of many countries of the world was involved. Consideration of this topic is limited to studying their role in the material support of armed forces of metropoles, when it comes to the participation of colonial possessions of Entente Powers in World War I. However, a huge mass of representatives of Asian and African people, the vast majority of whom were Muslims, served in the armed forces of the member countries of both military blocs. European countries witnessed the arrival of hundreds of thousands of colonial soldiers fighting on European territory, getting captured and coming into contact with European society and culture. Capturing them, keeping them in camps and creating conditions under the norms of The Hague Convention of 1907 required certain efforts from the authorities of the Triple Alliance countries. In addition, prisoners of war from various regions of Asia and North Africa, held in the camps of the Triple Alliance countries, were of great interest to scientists studying anthropology, ethnography and the languages of the eastern people. The countries of the Triple Alliance sought to use the anti-colonial feelings of Muslims from the British and French possessions, promoting “jihad” against the Entente Powers. However, the creation of favorable conditions for the life of prisoners of war in the camps and increased propaganda work caused a mixed reaction from Muslim prisoners of war. Many prisoners of war from the Muslim regions of the Entente Powers remained faithful to their military oath, although they dreamed of freeing their countries from colonial dependence.
Abstract: The article is dedicated to the analysis of the humanitarian assistance received by Russia from foreign states during the WWI. Charity allowed solving quickly the main military tasks in extreme conditions: supplies for medical facilities, helping the sick and wounded, struggle against epidemics. All private aid to the Russian army including international, was concentrated in the jurisdiction of the Russian Red Cross Society (RRCS). Foreign donations came in the form of remittances, drug supplies, dressings, medical tools, ambulance cars, foreign professional physicians’ and nurses’ help. The members of the foreign medical community created their own hospitals, infirmaries, squads in Russia. The main organizational principle of their work was the separation of powers between RRCS and Foreign patrons. The main directions of the international cooperation have been highlighted, the problems encountered have been studied, reviews of the received types of help have been carried out, their volume, feasibility and effectiveness have been analyzed.
Abstract: The problem of the legal status of the Kazakh woman in the family and society in the XIX – early XX centuries by the assessment of Russian researchers, whose scientific or professional activity was connected with the study of the Kazakh region is being considered in this article. The views of the authors on the question of women’s rights in traditional Kazakh society are described by the method of comparative research. The information about the legal status of the Kazakh woman is more narrative in the works of the first half of XIX century (G.I. Spassky, A.I. Levshin, S.B. Bronevsky, N.R. Mamyshev). But we can get from the materials of the researchers the information about the legal status of women in the conditions of preservation of the traditional Kazakh society, when specific social institutions and rules of law existed in their traditional form. In contrast with it, the works of the authors of the latter half of the XIX and early XX centuries (A.K. Gaines, N.G. Mallitsky, N.I. Grodekov, N.M. Izrastsov and others) contain more systematic information and reflect changes in the legal status of women as a result of the Kazakh society reform. The essence and origin of such specific institutions of the Kazakh society as levirate, dower, and polygamy are described by the authors of the work. The features of the positional status of Kazakh women, which were correctly assessed by Russian contemporaries not in every instance, can be explained by the costs of the “European” view of the nomadic society of Kazakh people. Many social-legal institutions of the Kazakhs were formed in the pre-Islamic times and were due to economic reasons, the features of management and a nomadic way of life. The authors' theoretical justifications on the influence of Adat and Sharia law on the position of a Kazakh woman are quite objective, confirmed by field research materials and examples from bureaucratic practice. According to the authors' interpretation, the relatively free position of the Kazakh woman in comparison with the women of Central Asia was due to the regulations of the Adat law protecting the woman, as well as due to increasing Russian influence in the latter half of the XIX and early XX centuries. This was expressed in a gradual departure from Sharia law requirements in matters of family and marriage.