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«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

4 December 06, 2019


Articles

1. Olga N. Naumenko, Evgeny A. Naumenko
Traces of Islam-Arab and Turkic Cultures in the History of the Perm Orthodox Diocese in the XVII century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1408-1417.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1408CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes several Orthodox sources of the XVII century, created in the Urals in the Perm Orthodox diocese: the text of the sermons "Statyr", elements of the priest's clothing, more than 100 icons and samples of Orthodox sculpture from the Perm state art gallery and the current Church of Praise of the Virgin, that has an iconostasis of the XVII century. The authors pay attention to the text of the sermons, which clearly indicates the images of Islam: it is a negative image of a pig; the names of God, corresponding to the names of Allah; some subjects close to the Koran, etc. This phenomenon corresponds to the order (sleeve) of an Orthodox priest, the images on which include elements of the Arabic language and an ornament of Turkic tulips; the crosses and other Christian elements on it are absent. The authors refer this exhibit to a group of similar controversial subjects: the Monomakh's Hat, the Helmet of Ivan the Terrible, Russian weapons with Arabic symbols, etc. Among the analyzed icons are two images of Archdeacon Philip in Tatar clothes, as well as icons with green faces of Jesus Christ and the Virgin. The search for analogues led the authors to the art of Byzantium and the work of Andrei Rublev, which showed that such icons were created in similar political conditions, when the Orthodox state had the opportunity to strengthen missionary activity on the Genghisids and Ottomans. The authors come to the conclusion that the Ural exhibits could not appear exclusively for missionary work among Muslims. They reflect the religious situation in Perm the Great in the XVII century, when the population of different ethnic groups were familiar with Islam.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575587358.pdf
Number of views: 158      Download in PDF


2. Sergey F. Tataurov, Fillip S. Tataurov
Porcelain and Faience in the Cultural Layer of the Town of Tara

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1418-1428.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1418CrossRef

Abstract:
The material culture of the Siberian town inhabitants of the XVII – XIX centuries remains the subject of close scrutiny of historians, ethnographers and archaeologists, since the written sources that have reached us are scattered and do not fully reflect the features of the everyday life of the Siberian townspeople. The emergence of new sources, primarily archaeological, allows you to quite thoroughly reconstruct some episodes of the XVII–XIX centuries’ urban life. One of such episodes is the spread of the tea drinking culture and the appearance of porcelain and glazed earthenware, to which this study is devoted, mainly on the collection of porcelain and faience from the excavations of the town of Tara. The study aims to identify the main stages of the spread in Tara of porcelain and faience ware of Chinese and Russian production and associated tea drinking culture. Appeal to different types of sources – archaeological, written, ethnographic – determines the interdisciplinary nature of the work. Comparative-historical, typological methods were used to compare the Tara collection with materials from other regions and detect the chronological groups of crockery. The study results. The distribution pattern of porcelain and faience tableware in Siberia is determined, which is reflected in the history of Tara. Chinese products beginning to arrive on the Siberian markets in the end of the first third of the XVII century as elite, high-status goods, which practical significance is mediated. At the end of the XVII–XVIII centuries in connection with the spread of the tea drinking culture, Chinese crockery penetrates the middle strata of Siberian towns (mainly service people). In the XIX century Chinese porcelain is disappearing from the market; Russian porcelain and faience are widely used. The chronological stages of the spreading of porcelain and faience ware in Tara are distinguished. Chinese porcelain was imported here from the first third of the 17th century until the beginning of the XIX century. Discovered archaeological material allows us to divide this period into three stages. The first is associated with porcelain of the "transition period" (1620–1680), the second refers to the reign of the Chinese emperor Kangxi (1662–1722) (the “green family”), the third – to the rule of emperors Yongzheng (1723–1736) and Qianlong (1736–1796) (the “pink family”). In the 1810s Chinese porcelain is being replaced by Russian products from numerous private enterprises, appeared on the basis of Gzhel folk crafts. In the 1830-1840s porcelain and faience production is flourishing in Russia, mainly due to the activities of the Kuznetsov industrial family. In the 1860s a new stage begins in the distribution of Russian porcelain and faience related to the emergence of local regional enterprises in Yekaterinburg and Irkutsk. The stage of the widespread production and distribution of Russian porcelain and faience ends with the October Revolution. Thus, crockery, on the one hand, is one of the markers of social relations in a Russian Siberian city of the 17th – 19th centuries, on the other hand, it allows dating studied archaeological sites on which porcelain and faience were discovered (a significant role in this is played by the brands of manufacturers on some fragments), and analyzing the involvement of Tara-town in the trade and economic relations of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575587471.pdf
Number of views: 158      Download in PDF


3. Larisa F. Malyutina, Denis N. Gergilev, Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Larisa B. Zhabaeva
Social Thought in Russia of Its Czarist-Era about the Place of Siberia in the State Structure of the Country

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1429-1438.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1429CrossRef

Abstract:
This article is dedicated to the analysis of the views of the Czarist-era scientists and public figures on the role and place of Siberia in the structure of the government system. Theoretical substantiations and practical suggestions of public figures of the XVIII – early XX centuries on the issue of finding the best options for the rule by the imperial center of the eastern margins found response in the country's social and political discourse. The authors concluded that the settlement of the region led to a change in the management system of Siberia, which evolved from a priority source of furs to the integral part of Russia. The social thought of the empire cultivated the idea of the unity of the Siberian and All-Russian destiny justifying this with geopolitical, trade, communication and socio-cultural reasons. M.M. Speransky played a major role in the comprehensive modernization of the management system of Siberia, taking into account both unification and local ethnic and geographical features. In the Czarist-era, Russia developed and discussed alternatives for the structure and management of the state, but none of them reached the pilot stage, since the absolutist paradigm did not assume a real consideration of interests other than imperial ones. The brief multi-party pre-revolutionary period due to revolutionary and pre-revolutionary events also left numerous ideas of administrative and territorial reforms at the project stage. The complex of historical challenges necessitates the study of the experience of the mutual influence and interdependence of Russia and Siberia, and the development of an effective state management policy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575587546.pdf
Number of views: 112      Download in PDF


4. Nurbek U. Shayakhmetov, Gulnar T. Mominova, Janagul M. Omirbekova, Aizhan A. Maibalaeva
Kazakh Steppe as a Historical Geographic Phenomenon in the Works of Russian Scientists of the XVIII century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1439-1450.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1439CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the issues of studying by the Russian scientists the Kazakh steppe and the people inhabiting it in the 18th century. 18th century became a key and qualitatively new stage in the history of the study, accumulation and deepening of geographical and historical knowledge of the Kazakh steppe. At the beginning of the 18th century the Russian government has intensified the study of Siberia and the Kazakh steppe in the natural and historical-geographical aspects. In this context, the article reveals the role of Russian scientists in the scientific study of Kazakhstan and their contribution to the development of Russian nomad studies. The results of the scientific study of the Kazakh steppe are a set of sources on history, geography, nature management, ethnic territory, ethnography, economy and place names. Therefore, the works of Russian scientists and materials of academic expeditions published by its participants in the eighteenth century, basically became the source base for subsequent studies of the Kazakh steppe. They accumulated a certain amount of knowledge and ideas about the steppe civilization, which helped to identify common patterns in the development of the steppe peoples. It is logical that all the information of the researchers and the materials of the expeditions had inherent conflicting judgments and conclusions, insufficient accuracy and completeness of information about the Kazakh people, because it was the first large-scale comprehensive survey of the region. Despite this, the works of Russian scientists were of great scientific importance in the ethnographic study of the Kazakh people and in considering the Kazakh steppe as a historical and geographical phenomenon.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588440.pdf
Number of views: 123      Download in PDF


5. Mergen S. Ulanov, Valeriy N. Badmaev, Arya A. Andreeva
Buddhist Communities of Transbaikalia and the Lower Volga in the Confessional Policy of the Russian Empire

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1451-1458.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1451CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the specifics of the confessional policy of the Russian Empire regarding Buddhism. After the advent of Buddhist subjects in Russian state policy, a tolerant attitude towards the Buddhist religion manifested itself, especially the Kalmyks, who until 1771 had considerable autonomy. In the subsequent period, the tsarist government made successful attempts to centralize the Buddhist communities of the Buryats and Kalmyks in order to create a strict church structure and hierarchy like the Russian Orthodox Church. However, this desire of the authorities was dictated not so much by hostility towards Buddhism as by the desire of the Russian state to control all religious denominations in the empire. After a series of administrative transformations in the second half of the XIX century a system of Buddhist spiritual institutions was formed. The study showed that tsarist politics was aimed at the Buddhist community of Russia serving the state interests of the empire. However, despite the active support of the missionary activities of the Russian Orthodox Church in Kalmykia and Transbaikalia, the tsarist government was not able to fully Christianize the Buddhist population of the empire. At the same time, the attentive attitude of the central government to the Buddhist denomination led to the fact that Russian sovereigns began to be positively perceived by the Buryat and Kalmyk people.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588498.pdf
Number of views: 90      Download in PDF


6. Vladimir T. Tepkeev
Kalmyks, Kazakhs and Kuban Nogais in the Campaign of 1738: One of the Little-Known Pages of the Russian-Turkish War of 1735–1739

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1459-1469.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1459CrossRef

Abstract:
The article details the participation of Kalmyks, Kuban Nogais and Kazakhs in the military campaign of 1738 in the framework of the Russian-Turkish war of 1735–1739. This topic was only briefly covered in the works of most researchers, who briefly highlighted the main events of the whole war. Therefore, the aim of the work is a detailed consideration of the participation in the campaign not only of Kalmyks, but also of other nomadic peoples who took part in it directly or indirectly. The source base was the materials of the National Archive of the Republic of Kalmykia, where the documents of Khan Donduk-Ombo’s correspondence with the regional administrations in southern Russia were deposited. Their analysis showed that the active and mass participation of the Kalmyks in the Russian-Turkish war created the conditions when their ulus became vulnerable to attack from the east. At the beginning of 1738, the ulus of the Kalmyk khan Donduk-Ombo underwent a massive Kazakh raid. The consequences of such actions could have a very negative effect on the combat readiness of the Kalmyk army, which would have a negative impact on its participation in the military campaign. However, the Kalmyk Khan still took an active part in it and his actions were mainly limited to the Kuban region. The invasion of the Kalmyk cavalry into the Kuban was a continuation of the previous campaign, when the Saltanul Nogais were subordinated. This time, the Kalmyks and the Kabardinians who acted with them were attacked by Kuban Nogais from the Khara-Kipchak and Navruz-Ulu tribes, who were relocated to controlled territory. More than a thousand Kalmyks were sent to the army field marshal P.P. Lassi, but it did not meet the original request of the Russian command. An attempt by Khan Donduk-Ombo to organize a return raid on the Kazakh uluses failed because of the mutiny of his son Galdan-Normo. A short-term internal strife in the Khanate was soon settled by the government, but practically removed Kalmyks from further participation in the campaign. The Don Cossacks were forced already independently, without the support of Kalmyks, to clash on the Don with the Kuban Nogais and defeat them. Thus, the Kazakh raid at the beginning of the year on the Kalmyk uluses significantly influenced the nature of the military campaign of 1738, limiting the participation of Kalmyks in it and allowing the Kuban Nogais to go on to an unsuccessful counteroffensive.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588548.pdf
Number of views: 91      Download in PDF


7. Andrey S. Ryazhev
Old Believers’ Re-Emigration in 1750-ies in the South of Russia: the Struggle of Approaches in Legal Policy

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1470-1478.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1470CrossRef

Abstract:
The article mainly concentrates on the state religious policy of the middle of the 18th century – the least studied period in the process of formation of Russian religious tolerance in the early Modern Time. An ideological, political and legal controversy that accompanied the process of re-emigration of old believers to Russia and, accordingly, the formation of relative religious freedoms in Russia during the 1750 – 1790-ies, investigated for the first time in historiography. The author characterizes the main approaches to the re-emigration of old believers at the top on the basis of unknown archival materials. Most attention is paid to the enlightenment foundations for the interpretation of re-emigration related to understanding state interests and manifested during the period of active work of the Legislative Board of Empress Elizabeth (1754–1766). As a result, the author points that the southern program of Supreme power for the return of the old believers reflected the slow evolution of the Russian political system as a European (continental) tolerant monarchy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588604.pdf
Number of views: 88      Download in PDF


8. Kairbolat Zh. Nurbay, Gulmira Zh. Zhuman
Middle Zhuz in the Period of the XVIII – beginning of the XIX century: Political Aspect of the Problem

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1479-1489.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1479CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the features of the Kazakh-Russian, Kazakh-Dzungarian and Kazakh-Qing relations on the example of medium-term settlement and their impact on the Kazakh society and regional Asia as a whole. Kazakh-Russian relations have the form at the level of khans, genghisides-tore, and at the level of the Kazakh clan nobility, which indicates changes within the Kazakh society, in the minds and psychology of individuals and social groups, in particular, heads of tribal. Their consequences were the social stratification of Kazakh society and the strengthening of Kazakh-Russian relations after the fall of the Dzungarian Khanate and the stabilization of Kazakh-Qing and Russian-Qing relations. Based on the analysis of archival and other sources, the authors conclude that a rigorous and comprehensive study of the regional characteristics of Kazakh-Russian, Kazakh-Dzungarian and Kazakh-Qing relations in the period of the XVIIIth – early XIXth centuries, the study of historical experience of the features and consequences of these relations under constant the changing political processes in the region will allow a new look at the formation of interstate relations between Kazakhstan and Russia, Kazakhstan and China and the establishment of good neighborly partnership relations, to avoid possible future political risks.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588657.pdf
Number of views: 98      Download in PDF


9. Аndrii E. Lebid, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko, Oleg E. Chuikov, Vladimir A. Svechnikov
The Officialdom of the Russian Empire: A Modern Historiography of the Issue. Part I

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1490-1505.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1490CrossRef

Abstract:
The study analyzes the modern historiography of the history of the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire. The article is based on research work formed the modern scientists of Belarus, Kazakhstan, Poland, Russia, Ukraine – representatives of the States that are XVIII–XIX centuries is completely or partially included in the Russian Empire. The subject of research of these scientists was government policy in the field of the state apparatus and the organization of the service of officials. Particular attention is paid to the works devoted to the formation and various aspects of the development of the bureaucratic apparatus in the national regions of the Russian Empire. The authors noted the unevenness in the study of the subject field of the history of bureaucracy. On the one hand, there is a sufficiently large block of scientific papers that cover general theoretical issues of the formation and functioning of the bureaucracy of the Russian Empire. At the same time, insufficient research attention was paid to the study of the regional specifics of the functioning of the bureaucracy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588737.pdf
Number of views: 100      Download in PDF


10. Natalia D. Borshchik, Elena V. Latysheva, Dmitrij A. Prohorov
Customs, Border and Quarantine Control Bodies of the Crimean Peninsula in the Late 18th – first half of the 19th century: Regulatory Framework and Personnel Structure

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1506-1513.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1506CrossRef

Abstract:
This article is an attempt to highlight the state of the legal framework, individual areas of activity and staffing of the Crimean customs bodies, border and quarantine control agencies at the end of the 18th – mid 19th century. The chronological boundaries are associated with the most important events in the organization of the Crimean customs service and customs regulation in general: in 1782, the Customs Tariff was adopted, often called the Black Sea Tariff; in 1784, Catherine II signed the Manifesto “On Free Trade in the Cities of Kherson, Sevastopol and Theodosia”, which became a kind of starting point for the creation of customs institutions in the region. In 1822, Alexander I approved the Customs Tariff, which played a key role in Russia's foreign policy; finally, the new Customs Tariff, which came into effect in 1850, marked the beginning of a new stage in the activities of the Russian Customs Service. At the same time, border and quarantine control bodies were created in border areas to solve the problems of stopping smuggling, taking preventive measures to avoid epidemics, etc. These special bodies had their own personnel structure, and their activities were regulated by special legislative acts. The main sources for publication were the materials of the State Archive of the Republic of Crimea (Gosudarstvenny Arkhiv Respubliki Krym – GARK, Simferopol), the Russian State Historical Archive (Rossiyskiy Gosudarstvenny Istoricheskiy Arkhiv – RGIA, St. Petersburg) and standards published in the Complete Collection of the Laws of the Russian Empire (Polnoye Sobranie Zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii – PSZ RI).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588801.pdf
Number of views: 71      Download in PDF


11. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Mikola A. Mikhaylichenko, Lyubov G. Polyakova, Jasmin Gut
Components of the Intra-Noble Status (Analysis of the «Eight-Class» Nobility of the Kharkiv Governorship of 1786−1799)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1514-1523.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1514CrossRef

Abstract:
The article, on the example of the «eight-class» nobility of Kharkiv governorship, explores the main components of the status of the nobleman. It is concluded that the status of a nobleman depended on a number of factors: origin and kinship; belonging to a personal or hereditary nobility; parts of the genealogy of a noble book into which the genus is entered; the performance of positions in the noble elections; rank; property status. At the same time, as the most important components of the status of a nobleman, the authors distinguish the rank and possession of serfs. On the example of the «eight-class» nobility of Kharkiv governorship, it was shown that the property status of the nobleman was not directly dependent on his rank. At the same time, the high career and property positions of nobles were often reinforced by origin, family ties, and successful marriages. The main source in the study was the third part of the genealogy book of Kharkov governorship of 1786-1799. This document is stored in the collection department of rare editions and manuscripts of the Central Scientific Library of V. Karazin Kharkiv National University.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575588925.pdf
Number of views: 92      Download in PDF


12. Violetta S. Molchanova, Leonid L. Balanyuk, Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva, Irina I. Potapova
The Development of Primary Education on the Cossack Territories in 1803–1917 years (on the Example of the Kuban Region). Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1524-1536.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1524CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the development of the primary education system on the territory of the Kuban Cossack army in 1803-1917 years. This part focuses on the period from the end of the XIX century to 1908 (before the introduction of all-russian primary education). The russian scientific literature on the history of public education in the Caucasus, and in particular in the Kuban region (the modern territory of the Krasnodar Krai, Russian Federation) was used as materials. The methodological basis of the study was the traditional historiography principles of historicism, scientific objectivity and consistency. In the process of work the following methods were used – problem-chronological, which allowed to study some facts of the development of the system of public education in the Kuban region in chronological order, and the problems in the order of their receipt. Thanks to this method some characteristic features of development of school business both on the territory of the Kuban region, and as in the Caucasus a whole were revealed. In conclusion, the authors state that for 14 years, in the period from 1894 to 1908, the number of students in the Kuban region has increased more than 3 times – from 34 thousand to 140 thousand. The number of educational institutions has more than doubled. The average number of students in one school in the Kuban region increased by 50 %. All this in general allowed in the period from 1902 to 1908 to increase the number of literate population in the Kuban region by 50 % (from 212 thousand to 371 thousand people).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1576183237.pdf
Number of views: 93      Download in PDF


13. Alexander S. Kovalev, Nikolai R. Novosel'tsev, Oleg I. Savin, Ella V. Savina
Elderly People in Siberia in the XIX – early XX centuries: Problems of Social Status and Main Directions of Public Charity in the "Open" Society

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1537-1545.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1537CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the problems of the social status of an elderly person, as well as the social care of elderly people in Siberia in the XIX-early XX centuries. The conducted historiographic analysis showed that special studies of the problem should not be considered as exhaustive, and therefore there is no holistic scientific understanding of the social status of elderly people and the practice of aid and support of this group of the population. The article analyzes the understanding of what old age meant in the post-reform period, the specifics of determining the age range of old age, the difference between the concepts of “elderly” and “retired”. We also study the lifestyle of an elderly person during the transition of the person to the category of “elderly”, features of helplessness and social activity of elderly citizens. On the basis of previously unpublished archival data, the main directions of social care for elderly people in Siberia outside charitable institutions are considered in detail, since this problem is less studied. On specific examples the features of the pension provision and the payment of an “invalid” salary are characterized, as well as the position of widows and public care of them, the importance of the widow type, social aid to the elderly people who have no place in the poorhouse, the role of the police and health institutions in the process of public charity. The examples of different social practices of the population in relation to the elderly people are demonstrated: from taking care of the extraneous elderly people to the expulsion of them from their own homes.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589093.pdf
Number of views: 79      Download in PDF


14. Sergey N. Rudnik, Irina V. Voloshinova, Anton B. Mokeev, Andrey I. Leyberov
The First Russian Mineralogist – Nikolai Ivanovich Koksharov (1818−1892)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1546-1553.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1546CrossRef

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the study of the biography of the outstanding Russian scientist Nikolai Ivanovich Koksharov. He was one of the largest Russian mineralogists. For his contribution to the development of this field of mining engineering, N.I. Koksharov earned the title «father of Russian crystallography». This inscription was even placed on his grave as a tribute to the scientist, whose name is forever inscribed in the history of Russian science. Nikolai Ivanovich became the founder of a new scientific field in Russia, replacing the old method of qualitative description of minerals with mathematically accurate crystallographic study, chemical analysis, and physical research. Worthily continuing scientific research in the field of mineralogy of another brilliant Russian scientist M.V. Lomonosov, N.I. Koksharov reached unprecedented heights in his scientific career, becoming in 1855 a member of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Nikolai Koksharov is known to us not only as a researcher, but also as a talented teacher and manager of a higher educational institution. Nikolai Ivanovich served as director of the Mining Institute in the period 1872−1881. He was also the director of the Mineralogical Society and the editor-in-chief of many volumes of the Notes of the Mineralogical Society. N.I. Koksharov was also a member of 60 Russian and foreign scientific societies and institutions, including ten Academies (Russian, Paris, Berlin, Bavarian, Roman, Turin, Danish, New York, Philadelphia and many others). His name is known far beyond the borders of Russia, and his scientific developments are actively used in many countries of the world.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589159.pdf
Number of views: 88      Download in PDF


15. Mikhail S. Belousov, Tatiana V. Lebenkova, Daria B. Pushkina
The Main Trends of Anglo-American Historiography on the Decembrist Movement

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1554-1564.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1554CrossRef

Abstract:
This article examines the main trends of Anglo-American post-World War II scholarly articles on the Decembrists movement. The analysis of this historiography fills in the gap in the literature. Soviet/Russian researchers have examined in detail both the fundamental plots of the day of the uprising, the investigation of the Decembrists' case and the domestic political problems of Russia in the first quarter of the 19th century, the issue of serfdom, etc. However, there is a lack of analysis of the specific features of Anglo-American scholarly articles on the Decembrist movement. In the USSR/Russia since the 1940s, the Stalinist revolutionary concept of Decembrist movement was adopted and for many years its main points were not disputed. Our analysis shows that the development of Anglo-American historiography of the Decembrists movement took decisively different direction. Anglo-American writers were not ready to admire the unequivocal revolutionary nature of the movement. Their studies represented diverse methodological approaches, often resulting in multi-disciplinary analysis, for example, combining historical and philological approaches. Naturally, these tendencies in the literature can be partially explained by the meager access to archival materials for the foreign scholars. However, our article notes that the multi-disciplinary trends of Anglo-American post-war historiography on the Decembrists movement as well as their evaluation of the movement through the lens of social movements, are worth to examine, especially in the light of new studies of the Decembrists movement in Russia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589216.pdf
Number of views: 73      Download in PDF


16. Nikolai N. Poliakov, Olga K. Mikhelson
Development of the XIX century Anglican–Orthodox Dialogue in the Foreign Historiography Evaluation

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1565-1575.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1565CrossRef

Abstract:
The article presents the study of western historiography of Anglican and Orthodox dialogue in the XIX century. The relations between the Church of England and Orthodox churches in the XIX century, including the Russian Orthodox Church, is an essential aspect of the history of Anglican and Orthodox relations, no less important for Russia than for the UK. However, it still has not received enough scientific attention. The paper highlights the key aspects of the development of Anglican and Orthodox relations in the XIX century and analyzes their interpretations proposed in foreign historiography. The article demonstrates that the predominant research is of individual personalities, primarily the key figures for the Anglican and Orthodox dialogue in the XIX century – Palmer and Neale. Studying the causes of Anglican and Orthodox contacts in the XIX century, western researchers highlight both the political aspects and the internal Church situation in the Church of England, as well as theological and dogmatic considerations and personal enthusiasm of individual Anglicans concerning the Orthodox East. The researchers agree that the basis of the Anglican and Orthodox dialogue was the Branch Theory of the Anglican catholic orthodox church, developed by representatives of the Oxford movement, as well as the doctrine of the Apostolic succession of the Church of England.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589273.pdf
Number of views: 91      Download in PDF


17. Sergey S. Belousov
The Influence of the Natural Factor on the State Resettlement Policy in the Kalmyk Lands (1840s – 1870s)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1576-1583.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1576CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of the influence of the natural factor on the state resettlement policy during the implementation of the project of settlement of roads in the Kalmyk lands of the Astrakhan province in 1847-1876. The natural challenges and responses of the administration during the resettlement policy are considered, the degree of their effectiveness is estimated. The author notes that the natural factor strongly complicated process of development of roads that didn't allow to execute completely all points of the Imperial decree of december 30, 1846 "About settlement of roads on Kalmyk lands of the Astrakhan province". The main success was the settlement of the Tsaritsyno-Stavropol tract of strategic importance, which was explained by the fact that it lay in an area relatively favorable in natural terms for human habitation, on other roads, where natural conditions were more severe, only partial success was achieved. To achieve the implementation of the project, the authorities were forced to make adjustments to the resettlement policy, but they could not reverse the situation. As a result, the state had to abandon the policy of settlement of roads and in General from the organization of resettlement to the Kalmyk lands. Turning to the analysis of the actions of the Supreme state power, the author States that she did not provide the necessary assistance to the local administration, which during the implementation of the project had to face great difficulties caused largely by the natural conditions of the Kalmyk steppes. In conclusion, the author comes to the conclusion that in the second half of the XIX century the state was not ready to effectively protect its interests from the challenges posed by nature.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589325.pdf
Number of views: 65      Download in PDF


18. Darya A. Mel’nikova
All-Russian Exhibition Horses in the Russian Empire (the second half of XIX – early XX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1584-1593.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1584CrossRef

Abstract:
On the basis of archival, reference, journalistic sources, the author analyzes the formation of the exhibition horse show in the Russian Empire. The first horse exhibitions were held in the structure of the all-Russian agricultural shows, where the exhibits were horses of working breeds intended for use in agriculture, industry and other sectors of the economy. Exhibited as utility horses, and the producers used directly for breeding new livestock. The organizers of agricultural shows were public agronomic and economic organizations, Central authorities. Holding such events was an incentive for owners and breeders to breed and maintain high-quality horse stock. As an encouragement owner of the best horses received awards, medals, award sheets which confirmed their high thoroughbred qualities. All-Russian mono-exhibitions, where only horses were exhibited, became a new stage in the development of both the exhibition business of Russia and the horse-breeding industry as a whole. The advantage of mono-shows was the participation of horses not only working breeds, but also others, which attracted more visitors from different regions of Russia. The main organizer was the Main Department of the state horse breeding, interested in carrying out these activities in order not only to encourage horse owners and breeders, but also to see the level of the industry as a whole. With the development of horse breeding at the turn of XIX–XX centuries it became necessary to hold the event not just to assess and confirm the quality of horse breeds, but also with the possibility of selling horses to individuals. This was made possible through exhibitions, sales and exhibitions, auctions. In general, with the development of all forms of horse exhibitions, a system of horse shows of the Russian Empire was created, stimulating horse breeding and reflecting the state of the industry for event organizers, primarily for the Central authorities.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589385.pdf
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19. Dmitry V. Ovsjannikov
The French Colony and the Russian National Periphery in 1845 year: to the Issue of the Difference between the Principles of Imperial Governance

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1594-1602.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1594CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the history of the resumption of the institute of governorship in the Caucasus under the leadership of M.S. Vorontsov and how the region’s governance model has changed. In addition to reviewing the history of the departments in whose hands civil administration was in the previous period, an attempt is made to pay attention to such an important element as the separation of powers between the governor and the Caucasus Committee created earlier as the supreme body of civil administration in the Caucasus. The subjective factor (the role of the viceroy’s personality in his relations with the military minister) had a beneficial effect on this distinction and had a positive effect on the constructive work on the joint problem of departments, namely the foreign colonial management experience. A document issued by an official organ of the press of the French Government containing resolutions on the administration of Algeria was in the field of view of Russian officials. The obvious similarity of the situation associated with the management of territories that are in the process of military subjugation, aroused a clear interest in the Russian administration. This led to a translation of the document and a comparative review of Russian and French management methods. In particular, the hierarchy of management, administrative and territorial division, personnel, financial and judicial issues is considered in detail. Analysis of French decrees and Russian initiatives allows them to be analyzed and to identify the main principles that form the essence of the two approaches in the management of territories inhabited by aborigines/«inorodtsy» whose Muslim population continued, in the studied chronological period, to put up armed resistance. All this is disassembled on the basis of a wide material, including unpublished archival sources.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589438.pdf
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20. Marina N. Tikhomirova, Konstantin N. Tikhomirov
Crockery of Faience and Porcelain of the Siberian Bukharans of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1603-1612.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1603CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the study of crockery made of faience and porcelain of the Siberian Bukharans of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries, as one of the important elements of material culture. In the work is the first time described 28 items from collections of rural museums in Ulenkul village of the Omsk region and Embayevo village of the Tyumen region. During the research scientific attribution and classification of the material was carried out. Authors divided utensils into groups: dishware (plates, dishes, tureen) and tea equipage (teapots, teapot, sugar bowl, oiler). In result were made some conclusions. In whole corpus of analyzed utensils predominate products, made at factories of the Kuznetsov family. Among the viewed items were detected some unique and rare samples, such as plate No. 10 and a set of tableware No. 23; soup vase No. 16, teapot No. 21, etc. Authors presupposed some reasons why the crockery, made of fine ceramics, was fined mostly between Bukharans. This group was the most well-off between other Siberian Tatars: their traditional activities were trade, carrier’s trade, animal industry. This activities arranged good financial capability and flexible worldview attitudes, which made possible to adopt in household some elements of urban lifestyle, for example, crockery of porcelain and faience.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575642048.pdf
Number of views: 84      Download in PDF


21. Veronika V. Tsibenko, Nadezhda Ye. Tikhonova
Gasprinskii's Nation-Building Project through its Reflection in “The Perevodchik-Terjiman” Newspaper

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1613-1622.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1613CrossRef

Abstract:
This paper aims to identify the features of the nation-building project of the Crimean Tatar enlightener, educator, journalist, public and political figure Ismail Gasprinskii (1851–1914) based on the analysis of his newspaper “The Perevodchik-Terjiman” (1883–1918). This Bakhchysarai-based newspaper was published for 35 years, during which time it gave a voice to the forward-thinking Russian Muslims and provided an influential platform for public debates. The completion of a comprehensive discourse analysis on the newspaper’s articles on a wide range of ethnocultural and sociopolitical issues allowed us not only to examine Gasprinskii’s nation-building project from the perspective of his ideas concerning the creation of a common national language, modernization of the religious sphere and inclusion of women in the nation-building process; but also to fit it into the all-Russian sociopolitical context of the turn of the 19th–20th centuries by identifying and analyzing such topics as sociopolitical conditions of Muslim Turks in Russia and Muslim emigration from Russia to the Ottoman Empire (Muhajirism).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589576.pdf
Number of views: 91      Download in PDF


22. Elena K. Sklyarova, Ylia A. Sidorenko, Andrey V. Safronenko, Elena N. Butova
The Evolution of Public Health during the Crimean War

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1623-1631.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1623CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the rise and evolution of public health in Great Britain, Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire during the period of Crimean War (1853–1856). On the historical-genetic and historical-comparative methods of research, the authors analyze the main features of the rise of public health in Great Britain, and the evolution of it in Russian Empire and Ottoman Empire in the middle of the XIX century, the creation of the new system of public health in Britain and Russian army. The term «public health» of the cities and army for the first time introduced in legislative documents of Great Britain during the reign of Queen Victory. During the Crimean War, new public health system became the object of international relations, foreign policy and medicine of different countries. Socio-medical ideas of E. Chadwick, S. Gerbert, N. Pirogov and F. Nightingale formed the basis of the introduction of the new system of the health of the army. The founders of the public health system of the United Kingdom of Great Brittan and Ireland developed their socio-medical ideas during the period of Crimean War. Their ideas, while preserving the certain continuity were developed in the context of war and peacetime.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589643.pdf
Number of views: 75      Download in PDF


23. Ekaterina A. Antyukhova, Valery F. Blokhin, Sergey I. Kosarev
"Public Diplomacy" and the Construction of Foreign Stereotypes in the Russian and British Press in the second half of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1632-1638.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1632CrossRef

Abstract:
The periodical press in the second half of the XIX century turned into one of the most effective tools of “soft power” due to its ability to influence public opinion; the periodical press interpreted the events in favor of the state strategy in its foreign policy preferences. The Russian press, in contrast to most European countries, continued to be significantly influenced by censorship, which, among other things, held back its number (the censors could not cope with a large number of publications). Newspapers and magazines were under the influence of the system of administrative penalties, in addition to liability to the court. Censorship strictly followed the principles of public diplomacy, taking care to preserve foreign policy priorities in the periodical press, not only in war, but also in peacetime. However, there are a number of Russian publications, which gave an objective assessment of what happened during the Balkan crisis, demonstrated the diversity of England’s approaches to the events of 1876–1877. The Russian press was able to solve the most important problem facing public diplomacy: to convey the understanding of the policy of their own state to the mass of their own and foreign readers, to influence decisions made in the highest circles.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589701.pdf
Number of views: 77      Download in PDF


24. Tatiana V. Chumakova, Mikhail S. Stetckevich, Elena S. Stetckevich
The Church of England in the Russian Periodical Press (in the second half of the 19th – early 20th century)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1639-1646.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1639CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is based on the survey of publications in Russian magazines of the second half of the nineteenth – early twentieth centuries. Those periodicals could be classified into three groups: official media of various state institutions, including official ecclesiastic magazines, and those of universities; laic literary, and non-fiction magazines edited by private persons; and magazines issued on the private initiative of some priests. All the surveyed publications mentioned the Church of England, but there were a few of such notes in laic media, mainly in the context of history and culture of Great Britain, there were almost no special articles or even short texts on the Church of England in such media. But there were rather many articles on the topic in theological and ecclesiastic magazines. Among the reasons for such situation, we should mention the spiritual censorship which prevented publications not only ‘heretical’ and critical to the Orthodox Church, but even research articles on the non-Orthodox religious institutions, if they looked ‘too benevolent’ from the censors’ point of view. Another reason could be in the editorial politic of magazines, purposefully evading religious topics. Ecclesiastic magazines of the mid-nineteenth century willingly published articles and notes on the contemporary life of the Church of England because of two reasons: the development of theological disciplines such as comparative and polemical theology; and the state politic for the sake of active participation of Orthodox theologians and public figures in the international events where the topic of possible inter-confessional contacts was discussed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589756.pdf
Number of views: 78      Download in PDF


25. Gulbanu B. Izbassarova
Orenburg-Tashkent Railway and the Kazakh Society at the turn of the XIX−XX centuries (on the example of the Turgai region)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1647-1655.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1647CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to studying the influence of the Orenburg-Tashkent railway on the life of the Kazakh society of the Turgai region at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. The railway is considered as one of the tools for developing the outskirts. On the basis of archival and journalistic sources, the discussions on determining the route of the railway to Tashkent, the changes that occurred in the nomadic society, in particular, in the economic life of the Kazakhs, are studied. The opinions of the Russian and local elites on the significance of the railway, the position of Chinggizid S. Dzhantyurin are investigated. It is concluded that the Anglo-Russian rivalry in the military sphere prompted Russia to build this railway, but representatives of the Orenburg region’s elite played an important role in determining its direction through Orenburg, it is noted that the passage of the highway through the steppe led to the emergence of new professions, the transformation of fortifications into cities.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589806.pdf
Number of views: 77      Download in PDF


26. Vladimir A. Shorokhov, Artyom A. Andreev, Denis G. Yanchenko
The Last Frontier of the Empire: the Eastern Pamirs in Russian Border Culture

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1656-1669.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1656CrossRef

Abstract:
On the basis of archival data from previously unpublished documents and manuscripts of the Archive of the Foreign Policy of the Russian Federation, the Bahmetev Archive of Columbia University in the United States, the article provides a clear description of the role of the Eastern Pamirs in the culture of the frontier and Russia's strategy. The authors characterized the activities of the Pamir detachment, from 1889 to 1917 standing guard over the southeastern borders of the Russian Empire, the memoirs, departmental correspondence, reports of officers of the General Staff in different years who served in a unique unit were analyzed. The documents reveal to the reader the mysterious image of “Roofs of the World”, which was formed at the turn of the century before last and at the end of the era of geographical discoveries and under the influence of Russia's territorial expansion in central Eurasia. The beginning of scientific study of the region coincided in time with the Anglo-Russian-Chinese delimitation in Central Asia – a process that actually stretched over more than twenty years. The authors paid special attention to the life of Europeans and the local population in the hard conditions of the Eastern Pamirs, an analysis of the relations of the indigenous population with the Russian military, and the peculiarities of the region’s perception in the late imperial period. The final section of the article shows how the system of border control and interaction with local people, used before 1917, was modernized in the Soviet period and partially preserved in the post-Soviet space.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589893.pdf
Number of views: 81      Download in PDF


27. Ruslan M. Zhitin, Alexey G. Topilsky
Practices of Economic Modernization of Large Landowners in the Tambov Province in the late XIX – early XX сentury

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1670-1678.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1670CrossRef

Abstract:
The article studies the problem of economic modernization of a large landowner economy in the Tambov province. A comprehensive analysis of the developmental features of 489 Tambov latifundia is proposed. The relevance of the work is determined by the need to identify the features of economic modernization of a large type of estates as a special type of land ownership. The zemstvo statistical descriptions of landowners' estates in the Tambov province and the materials of the industrial census of 1908 were used as the main source. Due to the mass nature of the selected sources, their generalization required the creation of a comprehensive information system “Large Savings in the Tambov Province at the End of the 19th – Beginning of the 20th Century”, which allows displaying all available information on estates. The results of the study made it possible to describe the industry specialization of agricultural activities of the owners, to identify the features of industrial modernization of economies, to study the structure of land use. The considered practices of modernization of landowner estates reflected the opportunities for business development in the conditions of the agrarian agricultural crisis. It is shown that in order to increase the profitability of their estates, the Tambov latifundists transformed the traditional sphere of landlord production, refusing to cultivate crops, the demand for which was not high during the agrarian crisis. Some entrepreneurs, realizing the benefits of industrial intensification, switched from simple cultivation of crops to their processing at enterprises. This strategy provided greater income, expanded the economic stability of Tambov farms. As a result, the modernized complexes were the most stable type of landlord property. In a crisis, the latifundists were able to use their resources more rationally than others, to propose an effective strategy to overcome the negative consequences of low prices for agricultural products.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575589948.pdf
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28. Liudmila E. Lapteva, Marina V. Nemytina, Tsybik Ts. Mikheeva
Zemstvo and Court of Peace in Russia: Public Authority at Local Level

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1679-1691.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1679CrossRef

Abstract:
The authors of the article reveal the essence and content of the Zemstvo and Judicial reforms (1864) in the general context of social relations and the domestic policy of the Russian Empire, showing their connection with the Peasant reform (1861). As a result of the reforms carried out by the government of Alexander II, local public authority was transformed. All-estate zemstvo institutions and courts independent from the administration appeared in the provinces and counties. The article describes the Zemstvo reform aimed at solving of social and economic problems of the citizens at local level, in its relationship with the Judicial reform, which had established courts of peace, guaranteed equal protection of personal and property rights of citizens, including peasants who had received freedom recently. The authors reveal the features of the new public order in the activities of zemstvo institutions and local courts; substantiate the organizational principles common to zemstvos and courts of peace (estate-inclusiveness, independence from administration, legality, etc.); characterize the structure and competence of zemstvo institutions and courts of peace in their interaction with each other, as well as with the government bodies. The self-government bodies and the courts of peace, introduced by the government of Alexander II, contradicted to the historically established social order and state system of the Russian Empire, which predetermined their future fate. During the implementation of the conservative course of the government of Alexander III the courts of peace were abolished and the institute of zemsky district commanders with administrative and judicial powers was established in rural areas in 1889.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590005.pdf
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29. Artyom Y. Peretyatko
Forgotten Researcher of the Don Economy: Economic and Political Motives in the Late Books of N.I. Krasnov

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1692-1703.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1692CrossRef

Abstract:
The legacy of the outstanding researcher of the Don of the second half of the XIX century general-lieutenant N.I. Krasnov in soviet times was almost forgotten. Currently, the interest of historians in him is increasing, but his real personality is usually replaced by the pattern of the predecessor of his son, P.N. Krasnov. In addition, historians refer only to the early and well-known books of N.I. Krasnov, his historical and statistical descriptions of the Land of the Don Army. For the first time in contemporary historiography, the article analyzes the late books of N.I. Krasnova, «Cossack Ivan the Rich» and «Don Cossack Fleet». The author shows that until 1880 N.I. Krasnov remained a supporter of pro-government liberalism and hoped for reform of the Don Cossacks from above. He believed that the Cossacks should avoid direct conflicts with the russian government and transform themselves, adapting to changing socio-political conditions. Great hopes N.I. Krasnov associated with the reform of the Don Cossacks proposed by him, in the framework of which it was proposed that the Cossacks of the lower villages be sent to serve in the fleet. The article concludes that the ideas of the late N.I. Krasnov were a peculiar development of the «instrumental» policy of the government in relation to the Don Cossacks, proposed by D.A. Milyutin.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590058.pdf
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30. Mikhail Yu. Kuprikov, Nikita M. Kuprikov, Oleg V. Minchuk
Features of the Organization and Functioning of the Court in the Russian Province in the late XIX – early XX centuries: on the Materials of the Arkhangelsk Province

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1704-1715.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1704CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the peculiarities of the judicial system in the Russian province (drawn from the example of the Arkhangelsk province) in the late 19th – early 20th century. The functioning of the court during this period was directly related to the judicial reform of Alexander II, since its completion took place precisely at the end of the 19th century. The Arkhangelsk province had its own special geographical and economic characteristics, which encouraged the development of a distinctive scenario for the implementation of the reform, and as a result, a special model of the judicial system, different from the canonical models of the European part of Russia, was established. Based on extensive regulatory material, the following features of the model are highlighted: lack of election of judges; expanded legal status of Justice of the Peace (as expressed in the combination of the investigative functions and competences in criminal and civil cases), absence of attorneys. The authors study quantitative indicators of judicial practice on the basis of archival data. The official correspondence of judicial officials is introduced into scientific circulation. The article concludes, that the local judicial authorities were overloaded in the criminal and civil proceedings, which resulted in a decrease in the number of solved cases and of some indicators of the quality of justice.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590124.pdf
Number of views: 63      Download in PDF


31. Irina V. Lidzhieva, Ekaterina N. Badmaeva
Interpreter-Kalmyks in Public Service of the Russian Empire: Social Status and Limits of Career Development

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1716-1725.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1716CrossRef

Abstract:
Effective process of integration of the territory of the Kalmyk steppe to all-imperial spheres of society in many respects depended on knowledge of officials of local traditions and customs, and first of all language. Studying of the case interpreters and the translators who were a part of administrative structure of the Kalmyk steppe which was the national outskirts of the Russian Empire will allow to define separate aspects of state policy on the foreign population. The purpose of this article is determination of the social status tolmachs and translators and the limits of career development which are in the service in the second half of XIX – the beginning of the 20th centuries in a control system of the Kalmyk people. Archive materials from funds of National archive of the Republic of Kalmykia were the main source for writing of article. As methods of a research are used: prosopograficheskiya, allowed, on the basis of the analysis of official lists about service and certificates to reconstruct vital and professional ways interpreters both translators of a control system of the Kalmyk people and the statistical analysis – the collective biography of the lowest officials of executive authority of the Kalmyk steppe during the considered period, on the example of interpreters and translators is created. Special attention was paid to identification of criteria of advance in the field of professional and social activity as in the majority they were commoners. In conclusion the author comes to a conclusion that involvement of Kalmyks on public service, first of all as interpreters and translators was one of ways of incorporation of the foreign population in the all-Russian social and economic and political and legal space.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590195.pdf
Number of views: 77      Download in PDF


32. Maria V. Bratolyubova, Irina G. Brizgalova, Maria A. Ponomareva
Leisure of Rostov-on-Don Citizens in the late XIX – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1726-1736.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1726CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to leisure of Rostov-on-Don citizens and its organization in the late XIX – early XX century. It was an important component of the urban lifestyle. Rostov-on-Don was a large trading city in the late XIX - early XX centuries. In the article the formation of an infrastructure of leisure entertainment is considered as an aspect of the history of Rostov-on-Don. The dynamic development of Rostov as a major center of a market economy led to the corresponding social stratification among the townspeople and, as a result, the structuring of leisure facilities and sites. The author gives a description of the various groups and places that existed for entertainment Rostov-on-Don citizens. Author dwells in detail on the leisure functions of clubs, gardens and theaters of Rostov-on-Don. Leisure institutions in Rostov-on-Don are typologically grouped depending on what form of leisure they were oriented to (on entertaining a city dweller or his personal development). The author concludes that there were much more leisure facilities and venues intended for entertainment in old Rostov, than those that served the development of the creative potential of people. The leisure activities of Rostov citizens were determined by the specifics of the labor activity of various groups of people in a large trading city. Rostov-on-Don had independent trade relations and consular relations with the countries of Western Europe and the multi-ethnic composition. Leisure created opportunities for self-realization of citizens and contributed to the development of civil society institutions.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590249.pdf
Number of views: 73      Download in PDF


33. Lyudmila E. Marinenko, Tatiana A. Kattsina, Irina S. Karabulatova, Lyudmila E. Mezit
Historical Experience in Dealing with Epidemics in the Yenisei Province in the late XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1737-1744.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1737CrossRef

Abstract:
The article on the materials of the Yenisei province analyzes the model of interaction between the executive authorities, city government and public organizations in the fight against epidemics in the late XIX – early XX centuries. The main directions of anti-epidemic activities in the Yenisei Siberia are characterized, the legal and financial conditions for their implementation are identified, and their effectiveness is assessed. The conclusion is formulated that the state policy in the field of health care, not taking into account the regional peculiarities of Siberia, has created a number of problems in the process of implementing sanitary epidemiological measures. In the conditions of the formation of the state concept of combating epidemics in the second half of the XIX century, the initiative activity of public organizations in the region, supported by city self-government bodies, became the basis for the formation of an anti-epidemic system in the province.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590325.pdf
Number of views: 83      Download in PDF


34. Yuliya A. Lysenko
The Question of the Reliability of the Muslim Educational Institutions of the Turkestan Region in the Reports of the Official of Special Assignments of the Ministry of Internal Affairs L. Naumov

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1745-1753.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1745CrossRef

Abstract:
The article presents the analysis of two reports of the official of special assignments of the Ministry of internal Affairs L. Naumov, prepared by him on the basis of a trip to the Turkestan Governor-General in 1910. Among other matters, L. Naumov was instructed to find out the objective picture of the activities of Muslim educational institutions in Turkestan, to determine the degree of their reliability and loyalty to the Russian Empire and the Supreme power. The information for the solution of the task was made by L. Naumov's personal observations. Interviews with officials of regional authorities, religious Muslim figures and teachers of mektebas and madrassas, reports of informants and secret agents, as well as analysis of the current documentation of the Turkestan district security Department and the office of the Turkestan Governor-General. In addition, L. Naumov personally visited Muslim educational institutions in Tashkent. From the information presented in the reports it follows that by 1910 in the Islamic educational system of Turkestan, a reform movement led by Munavar-Kara Abdurrashitkhanov was actively developing. The core of this movement was the Committee of newfangled schools of Tashkent, which carried out diverse activities to promote and disseminate the system of newfangled teaching in mektebs and madrassas of the region. His opponent was the conservative Muslim clergy, who advocated the preservation of the traditional education system. In his reports L. Naumov recorded few data testifying to the anti-Russian propaganda carried out by teachers of old-fashioned and new-fashioned madrassas of Turkestan. The facts of the use of foreign educational literature in the educational process, as well as personnel policy related to the invitation of teachers from the Ottoman Empire significantly undermined their confidence. All this information allowed L. Naumov to draw a conclusion about the unreliability of Muslim educational institutions and their lack of loyal feelings towards the Russian monarchy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590543.pdf
Number of views: 76      Download in PDF


35. Timur A. Magsumov, Marina S. Nizamova, Marina A. Ponomareva, Ruslan M. Allalyev
The Akhal-Teke Expeditions of 1879−1881 years: Historical and Statistical Study. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1754-1760.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1754CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the Akhal-Teke operations of the russian army in the period of 1879–1881 years. The attention is paid to the military-strategic situation on the eve of the conflict in the Trans-Caspian region, as well as to regional specifics of warfare. The second part of the article discusses the second Akhal-Teke operation of 1880–1881 years. There were involved such materials as the “Collection of information about the losses of the Caucasian troops”, as well as sources of personal origin, among which there were the memories of V.A. Tugan-Mirza-Baranovsky and A.V. Scherbak. In conclusion, the authors state that the siege of Geok-Tepe revealed the problem of combat protection of the positions of the siege troops. In just one week, from 23 to 30 December 1880, the tekintsy inflicted losses on the russian army, three times greater than the assault on the fortress. The duration of the second expedition was 206 days, of which 27 days were spent on the active stage, that is, on the siege and assault (December 17, 1880 – January 12, 1881). The average daily losses during the second expedition were 1,6 killed (among them officers less than 0,1), 2,59 wounded (among them officers – 0,27). There were no prisoners. In total, the first and second Akhal-Teke expeditions lasted 222 days, the losses in which were: killed-24 officers and 483 lower ranks; wounded – 76 officers and 1048 lower ranks. Total killed 507 people, 1124 wounded, 8 captured. Total losses – 1639 people. The average daily losses were 2.28 killed (0,1 officers), 5.06 wounded (0,34 officers) and 0,03 prisoners.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590660.pdf
Number of views: 92      Download in PDF


36. Nikolaj A. Mininkov, Ludmila V. Mininkova
The Cossack Region of Russia in the Characteristics of Russian Travelers of the Modern Era

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1761-1771.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1761CrossRef

Abstract:
Development at the turn of XIX–XX centuries of regional geography as a branch of knowledge, aggregate data about the country or its separate territories of different branches of geography and other scientific disciplines that were caused by the needs of the development of the travel and the expansion of contacts between people. This was facilitated by the intensification of business life in the course of the modernization that unfolded at that time. Hence there was a need to expand the range of sources of country knowledge, one of which was the description of travel, which is also a historical source, close in its features to the author's memories. In 1903–1904 two collections of such descriptions were published in Russia. Some of them belonged to the description of the Cossack regions by travelers. In these descriptions the authors about the Cossacks affected to varying degrees, authors or well-known Cossack, wrote General impressions in the course of their travels. Among the main topics covered by the authors were natural conditions and the place of man in the natural environment, social relations and relations in the Cossack regions in the process of modernization, especially culture and a combination of traditions and new phenomena. A significant place in them was given to man and his culture, the contacts of the Cossacks with the surrounding population, the formation of the culture of the Kuban Cossacks peculiar synthesis of little and great Russian culture. The descriptions testify to the peculiarities of the perception of Cossacks in Russia as a community with stable traditions, which poorly perceives social progress and modernization.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590723.pdf
Number of views: 75      Download in PDF


37. Alexander B. Khramtsov
Development of Public Life of the West Siberian Region at the end of XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries (According to Confidential Reports of Police Officers)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1772-1779.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1772CrossRef

Abstract:
The work studies the process of development of social life in cities and counties of the West Siberian region (the Tobolsk and Tomsk provinces) of the late XIX – early XX centuries. The confidential "political surveys" of officials of the general and political police in the normal mode presented to Department to police of the Ministry of Internal Affairs were the main source. These sources contain big actual material about social and political moods of the population, national disorders, exiled, strikes, crimes and incidents. By means of these reviews it is possible to establish key events and the phenomena in the territory of the region, to disclose dynamics of various processes. The analysis of development of public life in Siberia allowed to allocate 3 key stages: 1) "quiet" – 1883-1904; 2) "intense" – 1905–1913 (strikes, strikes, riots, scattering of leaflets, rise in crime); 3) "military" – 1914-1917 (increase in prices, deficiency of goods, inflow of wounded, refugees and prisoners of war). The discontent with the long nature of war and decrease in the standard of living of the population at the last stage promoted destruction of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590806.pdf
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38. Zoya A. Medvedeva, Olga E. Vaskina, Elena A. Panasenko
Deviant Behavior among the Peasants of the Russian Empire in the Post-reform Period

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1780-1788.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1780CrossRef

Abstract:
The release of many people and the facilitation of population migration got certain social groups out of the state and peasant community’s hand. It led to the emergence and increasing number of different behaviour deviations. The formation of a personality, emancipation, and disintegration of traditional community ethical norms, as well as society segmentation, and displacement of religious beliefs provoked behaviour deviations. The article deals with the forms of deviant behaviour. The interest in the deviant behaviour among the peasants at the turn of XIXth – XXth centuries is caused by the fact that peasant population prevailed in the Russian Empire, and peasants’ values rendered impact on the outlook of the society as a whole. The analysis of people’s traditional values breakdown allows finding the causes of the emergence and spread of behaviour deviations. The authors studied a large number of archival materials and analysed the main types of deviations as a whole. The breakdown of the state system, a significant shift in life routine, and the emergence of new social links contributed to the growth of behaviour deviations in the XIXth –XXIth centuries. The loss of familiar values adversely affected the psyche of many people. Disintegration of traditional ties, family deformation and unlawful acts became common.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590864.pdf
Number of views: 70      Download in PDF


39. Sergey N. Ktitorov, Olga V. Ktitorova, Olesya G. Karapkova
Formation of Theatrical Infrastructure in the Cities of the Eastern Black Sea Region in the late XIX – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1789-1798.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1789CrossRef

Abstract:
The article discusses the formation of theatrical infrastructure in the cities of the Eastern Black Sea region in the late XIX – early XX century, in close connection with the development of the recreational function of the region. The dependence of the organization and activity of leisure establishments on the requests and needs of the regional community is shown. The authors conclude that stage art for the inhabitants of the Black Sea cities was one of the ways to overcome the feeling of alienation and isolation from the outside world. It justifies the proposition that in the period under review, theaters turn into a mass type of public buildings and become an indispensable attribute of life, life and appearance of a relatively large Russian city, which was the result of a change in social ideals reflecting the population’s craving for knowledge. The authors examined in detail such objects of dramatic art as: stationary theaters; cursors; clubs of public meetings and other associations; folk houses; scenic platforms in restaurants and canteens. The influence of the construction of the summer theater in Novorossiysk in the development of such elements of urban infrastructure as electricity, plumbing and general landscaping in 1911–1912 is shown. The conclusion was made that the network of theatrical institutions formed in the late XIX – early XX century in the Eastern Black Sea region was very extensive and served the most diverse layers of both the local population and the visiting resort public, and their activity was one of the factors shaping a specific urban lifestyle.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590919.pdf
Number of views: 76      Download in PDF


40. Natalia Shamardina
Pilgrimage Icon of the Russian Northern Monastery as a Historical and Cultural Source

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1799-1810.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1799CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the issues of the history of the Russian northern monastery in the lands of the Komi-zyryan, reflected in the peculiarities of the pilgrimage icon belonging to the Kaliningrad inhabitant. It turned out that the icon is the blessing of an outstanding church figure – Archimandrite of Trinity Stefano-Ulyanovsky Monastery Matfey (1818–1885), and is a copy of the monastery miracle icon. The icon shows the main milestones of the history and background of one of the flourishing Russian monasteries in the second half of the 19th century with its spiritual fathers and holy patrons supported and conceived by the cults of Russian saints. The icon is also of interest from an artistic point of view. For all the unconditional secondary, as well as the given miniaturization, its technical and aesthetic features are determined by the main trends of Russian religious painting of the second half of the 19th century. They can be brought closer to such defining phenomena of the era as works of St. Petersburg workshop V.M. Peshehonov (1818–1888). This icon writer and organizer of the icon business contributed to the creation of a style of late Russian icon, which met the tastes of the highest church hierarchy and the capital elite, including members of the imperial family. During the tragic events for the Russian Church, the monastery ceased to exist and was completely destroyed. His new life began in 1994, practically in an empty place. The icon in question provides some insight into the irretrievably lost shrines and the tense spiritual life of the Russian Orthodox missionaries who spawned them.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575590973.pdf
Number of views: 79      Download in PDF


41. Ekaterina V. Bykova, Konstantin N. Tarasov
Traditions of Art of Old Believers of the Volga and Vyatka Region at the Turn of the 19th – 20th centuries in the Historical and Cultural Context of Modernization

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1811-1819.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1811CrossRef

Abstract:
The article contains an analysis of the problem of the impact of the modernization processes that took place in Russian society in the second half of the 19th and early 20th centuries on the traditional art of the Old Believers of the Volga and Vyatka region. New phenomena in the art of Old Believers are considered in the context of serious changes in their social and legal status, which took place in the beginning of the 20th century. An attempt has been made to identify the mutual relationship between social transformations and innovations in the sphere of artistic culture in the environment of Old Society. The source base of the study is both written and visual sources (old-fashioned icons and objects of copper casting). Principles of historical analysis of written documents are combined with methods of visual art history, expert-attribution and formal-stylistic analysis. The comprehensive study of documents of different types made it possible to trace the degree of refraction of traditions of old culture and art in the mirror of modernization transformations. The authors emphasize the dual, contradictory nature of the influence of modernization on the art and culture of Old Believers. The thesis about the conservative nature of traditional art of Old Believers is justified. In fact, it acted as the main carrier and translator of traditional social and spiritual norms and rules in the era of transition of the Russian imperial society from the traditional to the modern model of society. The study is based on the study of the materials of the Volga and Vyatka region and allows to identify the general and special in the processes of impact of modernization changes on the society, culture and art of Russian old-age.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1576153231.pdf
Number of views: 76      Download in PDF


42. Vladimir B. Karataev, Lyudmila V. Shkvarya, Mayya A. Seliverstova, Maria V. Melan'ina
Some Aspects of Russian-Chinese Relations in the second half of the XIX century. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1820-1831.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1820CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the relationship between the two empires at the turn of the centuries: Russian and Chinese, as well as the history of the construction of the Chinese-Eastern railway as a kind of culmination of these relations. The work gives a general description of Russian-Chinese diplomatic relations since the beginning of diplomatic interaction between the two states, describes in detail the mutual relations of the parties in the second half of the XIX century, their goals when concluding the secret Moscow Treaty of 1896 (generally accepted historical name of the Russian-Chinese Treaty of Alliance of Russia and China against Japan), as well as the possibility of realization of their objectives. The problems of the Russian-Chinese Convention of 1898, the lease of the Liaodong Peninsula, and the construction of a naval base in Port Arthur are also directly discussed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591174.pdf
Number of views: 76      Download in PDF


43. Igor V. Zozulya, Ludmila P. Ermolenko, Marina E. Kolesnikova
Annual Reviews of the Kutaisi Province as a Historical Source for the Study of the Pre-revolutionary Judicial System of the early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1832-1841.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1832CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the characterization of the post-reform judicial system operating in the territory of the Kutaisi province. Features of the imperial ship system and legal proceedings were made on the basis of an analysis of one of the historical sources of the era – annual reviews of the Kutaisi province of the beginning of the twentieth centuries, which were based on the materials of the highest reports of the Kutaisi governors. The authors propose a detailed description of the activities of the Kutaisi District Court and justices of the peace, presented in dynamics in 1901−1913. Shows the current situation on the state of crime in the region in absolute numbers, and also provides statistics on certain types of especially serious crimes (murders, injuries, robberies, robberies, thefts, etc.). The causes of one of the most common types of crimes among the local mountain population – horse-stealing, which is largely explained by local traditions and customs, are presented. Statistical information on political crimes on the eve and during the First Russian Revolution of 1905−1907 is given (against the emperor and members his family, riots, participation in secret societies and gatherings, etc.).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575595620.pdf
Number of views: 60      Download in PDF


44. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Andrey V. Venkov, Ivan A. Ermachkov, Aude Médico
"Light Cavalry" of the Russian-Japanese War: on the Balance of Forces and Characteristics of Light (Armored) Cruisers of the Russian and Japanese Fleets. Russian Light Cruisers

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1842-1861.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1842CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is an addition to a series of articles on the ratio of the armored forces of the warring parties in the russian-japanese war of 1904–1905 and is devoted to the analysis of the quality and power of the "auxiliary" forces of the fleets, namely, the armored (light) cruisers of the russian fleet. We study their tactical and technical elements, as well as the concept of using national light cruisers. This article analyzes the tactical and technical elements of various cruisers of the russian fleet – "Diana", "Varyag", "Askold", "Bogatyr'", "Novik" and their capabilities to confront japanese ships of a similar class.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591322.pdf
Number of views: 73      Download in PDF


45. Oksana V. Bakulina, Mikhail Y. Semenov, Inna V. Kuznetsova
Peasantry in Vies of the Liberal Community of the Russian Province in the early XXth century (Based on Materials of the Central Black Earth Provinces)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1862-1869.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1862CrossRef

Abstract:
The present article is carried out within the framework of the study of such insufficiently studied aspect of pre-revolutionary liberalism as the history of liberal social thought of the Russian province. The study is based on the materials of one of the most typical provincial regions – Central black Earth provinces; the authors involved a wide range of the historical sources – journalistic, epistolary heritage of liberal figures of these provinces, materials of periodicals, etc. The article considers the views of representatives of the liberal society of the Central black Earth provinces on the peasantry at the beginning of the XX century, when the Russian society and the government faced the urgent need to solve a number of socio-economic problems, including the agrarian and peasant issue. It was analyzed the assessments and judgments of provincial liberal figures on the economic condition, the legal status of the peasantry, the level of its civil, socio-cultural and moral development, identifies the measures proposed by the liberals and describes in General their practical activities to improve the situation among peasants. It was identified that, despite the diversity of opinions, in the views of representatives of the liberal society of the Central black Earth provinces quite clearly traced two positions in relation to the peasantry: rationalist (moderate), based on the classical liberal thesis of equality of rights, and sympathetic (paternalistic) – close to the ideas of social liberalism on equality of conditions and opportunities. The authors came to the conclusion that the provincial liberals in their attitude to the peasantry acted as carriers of innovative Europeanized culture (in a broad sense), to which they sought to attach the peasantry as part of the development of modernization processes.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591371.pdf
Number of views: 61      Download in PDF


46. Tianming Gao, Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Sergei N. Bratanovskii, Nugzar Ter-Oganov
“Our Shah is the Russian Emperor”: the Little-Known Pages of the Persian Revolution of 1905–1911. Part 2

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1870-1876.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1870CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the little-known pages of the Persian revolution of 1905–1911. The authors pay attention to the process of escalation of violence in 1909, the driving forces of the revolutionary movement, as well as the activities of Russian diplomatic missions. There were used as materials the unpublished documents from the Central State Historical Archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia). The documents from the central state institutions of the Russian Empire were used as sources, namely, the documents of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, General Consulate in Tabriz, consulates in Ardabil and Urmia, the departmental correspondence of the Russian border units with the office of the Governor-General of the Tsar in the Caucasus and etc. The sources of personal origin were also applied as materials.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591496.pdf
Number of views: 85      Download in PDF


47. Evgenii A. Rostovtsev, Dmitrii A. Barinov, Ilya V. Sidorchuk
The 1911 Crisis at Provincial Universities

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1877-1886.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1877CrossRef

Abstract:
The purpose of the article is to study the development of the crisis of higher education of the Russian Empire in 1911, the so–called “Kasso crisis”, on the example of five provincial universities – Novorossiysk (located in Odessa), St. Vladimir in Kiev, Yuryev, Tomsk and Kazan. Traditionally, this period in the history of higher education of the Russian Empire was investigated on the example of the St. Petersburg and Moscow universities. This work aims to find out whether the reaction in the selected universities was only an echo of the events in St. Petersburg and Moscow, or we can talk about unique scenarios of its development. The study is based on a wide range of archival and published historical sources, including those not introduced into scientific circulation. As a result of the study, the authors came to the conclusion that the course of the crisis, its main driving forces, the positions of professors and students in different universities of the Empire were very similar. Common to provincial universities and uniting them with the capital were ideas about the importance of “academic freedom”, unwillingness to perform police functions, the desire to soften the blow of repression against students. At the same time, the tactics of the universities were different and depended on the composition of the professor’s corporations and the region to which the university belonged.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591555.pdf
Number of views: 52      Download in PDF


48. Aleksey V. Fedyakin, Andrey S. Semchenkov, Sergey V. Medvedev, Pavel Ja. Feldman
Socio-Political Situation in the Russian Empire at the beginning of the 20th century in Anonymous Reports of Citizens in the Moscow Security Department (1912–1913 years)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1887-1895.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1887CrossRef

Abstract:
The article investigates anonymous appeals of citizens to the Moscow security Department. The townsfolk were concerned about the safety of members of the Imperial family, offered their assistance in the detection of suspicious persons, informed the police about the upcoming secret meetings of the revolutionaries. Anonymous letters demonstrate a wide range of public fears and claims to the authorities in the years preceding the First World war. Quite often in anonymous denunciations – threats the Grand Duke Sergey Aleksandrovich killed by the terrorist in 1905 was mentioned. The revolutionary-minded authors of the letters thus tried to extrapolate the events of the First revolution in Russia for the period 1912-1913. With the same purpose in letters images of the dissatisfied public, the illegal secret organizations using in the anti-government activity aircraft were used. On the eve of the visits of Nicholas II and the Imperial family to Moscow recorded an increase in the number of anonymous letters to the police. Many of them are marked "urgent", which meant the need for more rapid investigation. The most resonant reports could be interested in the Director of the police Department, who, in turn, demanded from the head of the Moscow security Department a report on the results of the inspection.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591631.pdf
Number of views: 68      Download in PDF


49. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Svetlana L. Bautina, Anatoly N. Loshkarev, Yurii N. Makarov
Steamers of the Izhevsk Plants during WW1

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1896-1906.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1896CrossRef

Abstract:
The Izhevsk armory and steel plants played a large role in the First World War, primarily in providing the Russian army with weapons. But in their history, the role of factory’s water transport has not yet been explored. Meanwhile, starting in 1912, in the wake of pre-war orders, its substantial growth began. The two steamers available at Izhevsk Pond at the beginning of the century (“Izh” and “Shrapnel”) were supplemented by the “Granata” steamer and the “Izhzavod” motor boat built in Votkinsk. In 1915, the steamer “Pchelka” was purchased from the merchant Bodalev. At the same time, the ship “Shtorm” was purchased, due to technical and military problems, which did not end up in Izhevsk. After the revolution, the factories probably got the nationalized motor-boats of the manufacturers Petrov and Evdokimov. Despite their small size and low power, this was the best of what was available at the Izhevsk Pond during this period. As a result, by 1925 the factory flotilla reached its peak (four steamers and five motor-boats). The reasons for the growing importance of factory water transport during the First World War should be sought in the remoteness of the Izhevsk Pond from Kama. The transportation of motor-boats and steamers was a rather labor-intensive operation, as a result of which the Izhevsk factories, which survived in 1918-19 four evacuations, preserved their fleet in relative order, but almost completely lost the stolen or destroyed railway transport. With its restoration, the role of water transportation, as well as water transport on the Izhevsk Pond, quite naturally fell. In the second half of the 1920-s there is a significant reduction in the number of factory flotilla, and by the beginning of the 1930-s only the “Svoboda” steamer and two motor-boats remained in operation.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591705.pdf
Number of views: 71      Download in PDF


50. Sorin Arhire
The Russian-Romanian Diplomatic Negotiations between 1914 and 1916 for Romania’s Entry into the First World War

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1907-1917.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1907CrossRef

Abstract:
Although it had adhered to the Triple Alliance since as early as 1883, when the First World War broke the Romanian Kingdom proclaimed its neutrality, a decision that was favourable to the Entente. The negotiations between France, Great Britain and Russia on the one hand and the Romanian Kingdom on the other hand were only conducted by Russian and Romanian diplomats, while the French and British representatives were merely “kept up to date” with the evolution of the discussions. On 18 September/1 October 1914, a secret Russian-Romanian convention was signed whereby Russia recognised the territorial integrity of Romania and its right to incorporate within its borders the territories inhabited by the Romanians in Austro-Hungary. For almost two years, Romania maintained a state of neutrality that was benevolent towards Russia, in spite of the commercial relations that existed between the kingdom on the Danube and the enemies of the Entente. In the summer of 1916, under the circumstances of the offensive of General Alexei Brusilov in Galicia, but also of an advance of the French-British troops in Verdun, the government in Bucharest decided to enter the war alongside Russia, France, Great Britain and Italy, with whom he signed both a political and a military convention. On 14/27 August 1916 Romania attacked Austro-Hungary, as the Romanian troops relied on their cooperation with the Russian military.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591771.pdf
Number of views: 74      Download in PDF


51. Elena Y. Leontyeva, Irina N. Bogdanova, Andrey V. Bedrik
Socio-Cultural Space of the South Russian City during the beginning of the Great War (based on materials from Tsaritsyn’s Newspapers)

Bylye Gody. 2019. Vol. 54. Is. 4: 1918-1926.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2019.4.1918CrossRef

Abstract:
In the beginning of the 20th century, the city of Tsaritsyn was turning into a powerful transport hub and industrial center in southern Russia. The population was grown significantly, for which culture, music, theater, education were an important part of life. Therefore from the end of the 19th century we can talk about the formation and development of the cultural life of Tsaritsyn and the formation of a socio-cultural space in it. Analysis of the Tsaritsyn’s newspapers during the period of the First World War beginning clearly demonstrates the advanced social and cultural life of the city. It has already acquiring a military connotation, which reflects the abundance of charitable events aimed at raising funds and helping the front. However, the city’s authorities and population were still concerned about improvements of the territory and the construction of the ice rink and building the «House of Science and Arts», about the beginning of the school year. The layman was offered an extensive repertoire of theatrical productions, concerts, films, various entertainments and leisure forms.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591837.pdf
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52.
Russian Historical Journal “Bylye Gody” publications for 2019
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1576153366.pdf
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53.
full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1576183407.pdf
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54.
Cover
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1575591989.pdf
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