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«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

4 December 01, 2018


Articles

1. Aleksandr А. Cherkasov, Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Michal Šmigeľ, Sergei N. Bratanovskii
Evolution of the Institution of the Slave Trade in the Caucasus in the IV–XIX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1334-1346.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1334CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyses the process of transformation of the institution of the slave trade in the Caucasus in the IV–XIX centuries. There were used as materials a variety of sources and special literature on various aspects of the research topic. The authors came to the conclusion that the slave trade in the Caucasus had its own characteristics and stages determined by the development of the historical process with a significant role of external factors. So, in the period of influence of Byzantium the slavery in the Caucasus with its components was relatively undeveloped. The situation has changed fundamentally with the fall of Byzantium, after which a stream of slaves flooded from the Caucasus into the Ottoman Empire. The development of the slave trade in the Caucasus has had the undeniable negative consequences: as a result, the export to slave markets of the best in their qualities of men, women and children; the initiation of feudal strife and the organization of raids to capture prisoners. However, the slave trade has become an important economic component in the relationship of the Ottoman Empire with the highlanders of the Caucasus and their political orientation towards Istanbul.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543489353.pdf
Number of views: 36      Download in PDF


2. Evgeny V. Vodyasov, Olga V. Zaitceva
Early Muslims in the Tomsk Ob Region: Hypotheses and Discussions

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1347-1353.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1347CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to a debated issue of when Islam was introduced to Western Siberia. It discusses the methods used to identify Muslim burials, their chronology, and the reasons behind the emergence of Islam in the Tomsk Ob region in the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries. So far, the archaeological sources available do not allow us narrow down the period in which this happened. At the two burial sites dated to this period, namely Astrakhantsevskoe and Shaitan-II, there are burials formed according to the Muslim tradition (with adherence to the Qiblah direction and with no inventory), as well as the ones where either the head of the deceased is turned towards Mecca or there is no accompanying inventory found). We hypothesise that Islam came to the Tomsk Ob region through Muslim merchants who were involved in missionary activities.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543489436.pdf
Number of views: 25      Download in PDF


3. Aleksandr A. Kudrjavcev
Mountaineers and Cossacks of the North Caucasus in the History of Russia's Time of Troubles of the late XVI – early XVII centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1354-1365.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1354CrossRef

Abstract:
The death of Ivan the terrible and the accession to the Russian throne of first his son Fyodor Ivanovich, and then Boris Godunov, did not make significant changes in Russian policy in the Caucasus. Moscow continued to support the tsars of Eastern Georgia, and its diplomatic ties with the rulers of Transcaucasia were involved in the highlanders and Cossacks of the North Caucasus. In its geopolitical plans of the Imperial administration relied on the Terek Cossacks and the mountaineers of the Northwest Caucasus, seeking at the same time military and political measures to attract shamkhalov Tarkovsky, which controlled the territory of the Caspian region R. Sulak to the river Ullu-tea. The latter were the main allies of the Crimean khanate and Turkey. In this, one of the most difficult in the history of Russia in the periods of end of the XVI – early XVII centuries, when actively brewing, and then came the development of a deep crisis of the time of Troubles, when the Russian government particularly acute was the question of the state and its territorial integrity, the highlanders and the Cossacks of the North Caucasus was among the supporters of the legitimate government and supported the Royal Governor on the Terek and Astrakhan. Later, after the accession to the throne of Mikhail Fedorovich, they unanimously sided with the new Russian dynasty, which refused to support the self-styled contenders for the Russian throne. However, at the beginning of the XVII century, in the midst of turmoil in the сentral regions of the state, the Terek Cossacks, unlike the Grebensky Cossacks, along with significant masses of the don, Zaporozhye, Volga, Yaitsky Cossacks, were involved in the turbulent events of the Russian state of this time and actively participated in the Russian turmoil, leaving a bright trace in the historical events of this period. The attempt of ataman Zarutsky and Marina Mnishek at the final stage of the troubles to raise a rebellion in the South of Russia did not find support from the Cossacks and mountaineers of the North Caucasus, who came to defend the Romanov dynasty.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543489496.pdf
Number of views: 18      Download in PDF


4. Konstantin N. Maksimov
Evolution of Kalmyk Law into a Combined Law System of the Russian Government in the 17th – 18th centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1366-1375.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1366CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is about long process of voluntary participation of the Kalmyk people to the Russian subordinationinstead of the recognized day (August 9, 1609), for almost half a century, Russia and Kalmyk people been developing mutual relations, pursuing mutually beneficial conditions for integration. In beginning of the foundation in 17th century with the problems of developing official mutual relationship and introducing Kalmyk, people to the composition of Russia became the basic policy of Russia, in Siberia concerned to the external policy of the southeastern direction. For this questions about Kalmyk people were considered and resolved by the care and higher authorities of the state government of Russia – the kings higher council, the Poland depiction, the issues of foreign policy, the order of the Kazan Castle, the land management on the eastern borders of the country, as well as territorial administrative administrations. The first half of the 17th century is the active period of contacts of the Kalmyk people with Russia with regarding to receive the territory for permanent settlement and establishing relations on the principles of sovereignty. Russian administration, at the early stage of the war, brought forward the conditions of the bringing the Kalmyk people in the Russian Federation military service based on a military-political alliance, if they were unable to pay the money launderers (publishers) and the payment of a certain date, defending the interests of both sides. Because of the flexible national policy of Russia, this long stage ended in the seventeenth century with the incarceration of the Kalmyk State in the composition of the Russian State in the real state of political autonomy with elements of the international law. In condition of transforming autocracy to “absolute Kalmyk autonomic kingdom”, turning to united Russian system, continuously changing legal state, which resulted the reformation in the first half of the 18th century. The Kalmyk government reduced the status of political autonomy and acquired administrational autonomy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543489638.pdf
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5. Larisa V. Tataurova
Handicraft Activities in the Life-Support System Structure of the Siberian Village of the XVII–XVIII centuries (according to the Archaeological Materials of the Omsk Irtysh Region)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1376-1387.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1376CrossRef

Abstract:
In the period of XVII-XVIII centuries in Western Siberia system of settlement structures around the cities and stockade towns had been formed. Villages were founded by service men from military garrisons, who were obliged to farm as well. The consequence of those processes was formation of the population’s historical ecology, which included life support system. The system’s main elements were settlements and dwellings, food and costume sets. Their existence as final products, which provided the existence and development of human groups, was connected with functioning of various household crafts. Those handicrafts produced means of production and materials necessary for house construction, cooking and clothes making. Market economy based on specialized handicraft trade working for sale was only founding in that period. Despite a mention in written sources about artisans’ presence in the cities, their production organization did not go beyond the domestic craft. The author obtained archaeological materials during the excavations of Russian settlements of XVII-XVIII centuries in the Omsk Irtysh Region. The materials with results of interdisciplinary research allowed author to approach the reconstruction of handicraft occupations of the rural population and analyze their role in the formation of the basic elements of the life support system. On the base of archaeological collections of the rural settlements Anan’ino and Izyuk was considered forging, pottery, shoemaking, bone carving, cooperage, and weaving, spinning production. The methods of knitting with bone needles were also reconstructed. Author revealed role of domestic made items among the goods brought “from Russia” and made for sale by proficients.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543569992.pdf
Number of views: 20      Download in PDF


6. Vladimir T. Tepkeev, German M. Borlikov
The Relations between the Kalmyks and the Peoples of the North Caucasus in the Context of Military-Political Contacts in the middle of the 17th century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1388-1396.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1388CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the initial period of establishing relations between the Kalmyks and the peoples of the North Caucasus in the middle of the 17th century, which at that time mainly had military and political nature. As a result of migration from Central Asia to the prairie lands of the Northern Caspian, not only the Nogai hordes on the Volga, Terek and Kuban were impacted by the Kalmyk cavalry, but also by other peoples of the North Caucasus, primarily Kabardians, who supported the Nogais and spoke on their side. Moscow used all political and military means against the Kalmyks transition to the right bank of the Volga and their appearance in the North Caucasus. Reflecting the first offense of the Kalmyks in 1644, Kabardian dynast could not finally stop the expansion of the Kalmyk rulers into their region as a result concluded an alliance with them. After the beginning of the Russo-Polish War of 1654-1667, Moscow state concluded a military alliance with the Kalmyks. This agreement was directed primarily against the Crimean Khanate, who took the side of the republic. The Kalmyk cavalry, already with the support of the tsarist government, again invades the North Caucasus to prevent the unification of the Crimean-Tatar and Kuban-Nogai cavalry and prevent them from joining the main military of the Russo-Polish war. The arrival of the Kalmyk people greatly changed the political alignment in the North Caucasus, and in the future was permanent of the Kalmyk people in the region during the 17th-18th centuries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543490036.pdf
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


7. Olga N. Naumenko, Evgeny A. Naumenko
Transformation of Caste Consciousness of Siberian Gypsies in XVIII – at the beginning of XX centuries as a Factor of Their Cultural Socialization

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1397-1405.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1397CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the process of socialization of Roma in Siberia through the transformation of caste representations on the basis of the synergetic approach. The authors believe that in Siberia this process is faster than in Russia as a whole because of the climatic, social and cultural characteristics of the region. As a result a group of "Siberian Gypsies" appeared which is fully integrated into society and preserved the traditional culture. The research is based on the analysis of two groups of caste norms in the culture of Siberian Gypsies of the XVIII – at the beginning: providing income by lawful (earnings) and illegal. The second group has the role of a "safeguard mechanism" to prevent the infiltration of foreign influence into the caste system. The activation of this mechanism is a natural phenomenon and indicates the weakening of the first group of caste norms. The authors project the conclusions to the current state, showing that in the Russian conditions the activation of the "safeguard mechanism" is uneven. The article emphasizes that culture of Gypsies is the only one in Russia, which preserved archaic caste ideas, characteristic of a completely different civilizational space. The study of the interaction of these norms is important not only for Russia but also for India, which is now trying to transform its caste system.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543490245.pdf
Number of views: 17      Download in PDF


8. Madi Rakhimov, Nurbek Shayakhmetov, Kairat Battalov
Sacral Geography of Priirtysh Region in the Works of Russian Researchers

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1406-1416.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1406CrossRef

Abstract:
This article is devoted to the study of the works of researchers and travelers who left valuable information about the sacred places of the Priirtysh region of Kazakhstan during the 17th-19th centuries. The main goal of the article is to analyze the complex investigations of scientists dedicated to the sacred places of the Priirtysh region, to determine their significance and relevance at the present moment within the context of the modern spiritual situation of Kazakhstan. The authors in this article, relying on worldview, ethnographic, toponymic, cartographic information derived from the memoirs and writings of researchers and travelers, determine the location of the sacred places of the Priirtysh region and determine their historical and cultural significance.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543490563.pdf
Number of views: 23      Download in PDF


9. Anatoly S. Skripkin
From the History of the Study of Ancient and Medieval History of the Lower Volga Region in the XVIII – XIX сenturies

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1417-1426.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1417CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is a systematic historiographical review of the authors’ works engaged in the study of historical and archaeological sites of the Lower Volga Region. The article consists of the references to the documents, reports and materials of the domestic archaeological organizations. It also includes the archaeological expeditions and the archaeological collections obtained during the excavations of burial mounds and settlements on the territory of the Lower Volga Region. The brief conclusions of the archaeological and analytical works’ later researchers for two centuries of the study of this region have been made in this article. The article shows the genesis, evolution and formation of the archaeological researches with the creation of all the necessary elements of the scientific approach in the study of the past in the Low Volga Region. The author of the article considers that the first prepositions for the excavations with the cognitive purposes include the study of A.V. Tereshenko according to the Tsarevsky settlement in 1843-1851. This researcher kept the diary records of the excavation process and made the drawings of the open objects. There were began the works on the mapping of the archaeological sites and developed the basic requirements to the process of the archaeological excavation by the end of the XIX century. The archaeologists began to keep the diary notes, made the situational plans and the drawings of excavated objects. The archaeological researches of the Lower Volga Region to be carried out systematically and scientifically in the XX century. The author of the article also points to the fact that the Lower Volga Region presents the unlimited opportunities for archaeologists to study the ancient and medieval history of the South of Russia. These places consist of the archaeological monuments of all ages since the Stone Age to the Middle Ages, and many of them are waiting for their researchers.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543490646.pdf
Number of views: 16      Download in PDF


10. Valerij G. Sedel'nikov, Valentina N. Tuguzhekova, Nadezhda J. Artamonova, Valentina N. Asochakova
The Formation of Primary Education in Eastern Siberia: the Example of Shushenskaya Volost

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1427-1435.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1427CrossRef

Abstract:
Rapid economic growth in post-reform Russia and the country's parallel lag in education – these two phenomena in historical literature did not overlap, despite their apparent contradiction. The authors of the article tried to fill this gap by analyzing the processes of formation of education in the Shushenskaya Volost, where, as in a drop of water, the problems characteristic of Eastern Siberia and even of the whole Russian Empire were reflected. The main problem of education in the Shushenskaya Volost is the lack of motivation on the part of the peasantry for schooling. The reason for this is that the government, emphasizing the religious-autocratic component of primary education, sought to shift the school's content to the shoulders of the peasant «society». Hence the very low rates of elimination of illiteracy, despite the selfless efforts of many rural educators. The tendency to change the mood of the peasantry begins to manifest itself as the capitalist relations penetrate the countryside, as well as in connection with the outbreak of world war.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543490788.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


11. Badma K. Salaev, Danara A. Suseeva, Tamara S. Esenova, Nadezhda S. Dzhambinova
Integration of Kalmyks into the Russian Society of the XVIII century and Relations of Kalmyks, Russians and Other Ethnos during the Existence of the Kalmyk Khanate within Russian Empire (based on Unpublished Materials stored in the National Archives of th

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1436-1455.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1436CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the process of adaptation of the Kalmyks who voluntarily joined the Russian state in 1609 into the Russian society of the XVIII century. Sources were numerous official letters of the Kalmyk khans and their contemporaries in "tod bichig" ("clear letter", the old Kalmyk script) addressed to representatives of Central, regional and local authorities, settled in the National Archives of the Kalmyk Republic. The results of the analysis allow us to conclude that the Kalmyks have become aware of themselves as an integral part of Russia since their voluntary entry into its structure. The official letters reveal the mechanism of gradual adaptation of Kalmyks to life in the new geopolitical conditions, successful integration of the Kalmyk people in all spheres of life of the Russian society of the considered era – both internal (economic, political and cultural life) and external (participation in wars against enemies of the Russian state). Drawing a panorama of the life of the steppe people in all its diversity, the documents describe the relationship between the Kalmyk and Russian peoples in military, social, commercial, economic activities, in interpersonal communication. Interethnic relations of the Kalmyks in the fight against common internal and external enemies can be described as fraternal, as characterized by mutual assistance of peoples in the protection of the territory, military campaigns. Such were trade, cultural and family relations established by the Kalmyks with different peoples in the period under consideration. Vocabulary, phrases and style of the documents that were reviewed indicated the formation of consciousness of the Russian citizen which was common for the Kalmyks of the XVIII century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543490927.pdf
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


12. Konstantin S. Zaikov, Aleksandr A. Cherkasov, Gao Tianming, Natalia V. Loukacheva
The Role of Marine Fisheries Research Expeditions of the 18th–19th centuries in Establishing Russian Political and Legal Presence in the Arctic

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1456-1470.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1456CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the problem of delimitation of the Arctic maritime spaces at the close of the 19th century in the context of the Russian Empire, historical, political and legal factors that influenced the ambiguous and inconsistent policy of the Tsarist government in relation to island spaces having a direct historical and commercial connection with dozens of generations of the Russian Pomors. The role of fisheries and scientific research is substantiated as an ongoing policy of “effective occupation” in the Arctic Seas and archipelagoes. Spatial remoteness and total misunderstanding by the central authorities of the specifics of affairs in the Russian North led, ultimately, to a “policy of concessions” in relation to lands, as well as to the loss of geopolitical positions in the sea due to significant backwardness in technical equipment. The empire considered a certain benefit in the existence of “frontiers”, since unstable borders predetermined a potentially beneficial territorial acquisition, “accretion”, while its rigid fixation automatically served as a factor of self-restraint, which contradicted the very nature of the empire. The paper emphasizes the continuity of the process of scientific diplomacy, when science serves as one of the foundations of the territorial claims of states.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491022.pdf
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


13. Sergey M. Sayadov
S.N. Glinka and His Works on the History of the Armenian People in Russian And Armenian Historiography

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1471-1482.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1471CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is about one of the insufficiently explored aspects of russian-armenian cultural and literary connections — the armenological work of the russian writer S.N. Glinka. S.N. Glinka was one of the prominent representatives of the conservative-nationalist trend. The admiration for republican ideals, the hatred of slavery, despotism with the idea of the inviolability of the existing world order, and sincere devotion to the autocracy were peacefully coexisting in his ideology. These features of S.N. Glinka's worldview appeared in his works on armenian history. In S.N. Glinka‘s works on armenian subjects a great attention was paid to the armenian nation’s contribution to the world history and culture, the fight for freedom and independence of their homeland. Armenian history was first considered from the inception of the armenian statehood to becoming an Armenian region a part of Russia in Glinka’s works. They detail the history of russian-armenian links, issue of the emerging of the russian orientation of the armenian liberation movement. He was one of the first in the russian prerevolutionary historiography to give a high assessment and stress the historical significance of the entry of Eastern Armenia into Russia. Essentially he discovered Armenia, its history and culture for the russian reading public of that period, contributed the formation of the scientific foundations of the russian school of armenology and was the first representative of this school. The article attempts to historiographical analysis of the problem "S.N. Glinka-historian of the armenian people" on the basis of a wide range of publications of pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern periods. According to a number of authors, including S.G. Areshyan, E. A. Hakobyan, works on the history of the Armenian people. Glinka were the best of all his works of historical subjects.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491093.pdf
Number of views: 12      Download in PDF


14. Alice Plate
„Do They All Perform Their Service Dutifully, and Can We Rely on Them in Future?”: Methods and Techniques of Manpower Recruitment in Russia In the 1780-1790-ies (by the Example of the Central Urals)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1483-1491.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1483CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is dedicated to the question of filling secretary vacancies at provincial courts in the 1780-1790-ies. Eighteenth-century legislation had imposed high demands on candidates aspiring to such key positions. In spite of this in times of huge expansion in the civil service as during the implementation of the provincial reforms of Catherine II local administrators had to rely on less qualified clerks. The author shows by the example of the Perm vicegerency (1781–1797) the strategies of manpower recruitment chosen to staff secretary posts at district level courts. The article outlines, that nearly all secretary vacancies could be officially filled owing to such promotion methods as accelerated career advancement and frequent reshuffle. Due to the lack of staff cases of malpractice were rarely pursued, and most delinquents, continued exercising their functions without hindrance. The fact that C.F. Moderach, Pavel I’s newly appointed representative in the Central Urals, decided in 1797 to cut a third of the staff in civil service can be regarded as a clear indication for the government’s disapproval with the low professional standards in local state institutions. This, however, was not considered a strong enough reason to dismiss the mentioned above recruitment methods of and initiate fundamental changes.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491153.pdf
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


15. Goran Rajović, Dmitry O. Ezhevski, Alla G. Vazerova, Milica Trailovic
The Tactics and Strategy of General G.Kh. Zass in the Caucasus

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1492-1498.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1492CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the tactical and strategic techniques used by general Zass during his service in the Caucasus. The attention is paid to intelligence, counterintelligence and sabotage activities, as well as aspects of information war. The source base of the article consists of documents of the state archive of Krasnodar region (Krasnodar, Russian Federation), some of which were first introduced into scientific circulation. In methodological terms the study was carried out using the historical and comparative method, which allowed to identify the general and special in the activities of russian military leaders in the Caucasus. In accordance with the principles of historicism, objectivity and chronology, the events were considered in their historical sequence with the involvement of various materials. The authors conclude that the tactical and strategic techniques used by General G.Kh. Zass during his service in the Caucasus were entirely aimed at depriving the enemy of the initiative. For this purpose, the intelligence, counterintelligence and sabotage measures were widely used. General Zass gave great importance to the spread of misinformation and rumors, and used methods of psychological influence – intimidation. All of this was intended to force the highlanders to stop the practice of raiding on the russian territory, having achieved this significant success, he became one of the most active and respected generals of the russian army.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491218.pdf
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16. Khatidzhe E. Mamutova, Anna V. Kostromitskaya, Evgeniy V. Kryzhko, Petr I. Pashkovsky
Ethno-Cultural Aspects of the Russian-British Rivalry in Turkestan in the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1499-1506.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1499CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the ethno-cultural aspects of rivalry between the British and Russian empires in the process of the «Great Game» in Turkestan in the XIX century. It is established that direct contact with the eastern cultures, interaction and dialogue (and communication was observed on both sides) occurred through British and Russian travelers. Eastern territories served as colonies of European countries and Russia. Based on the analysis of a broad source base and numerous studies, it is revealed that the scope of the tasks of travelers included not only the exploration of economic potential, but also the study of the ethno-political, cultural and geographical features of the region. At the same time, the travelers described in detail the terrain and nature, but relatively modestly characterized the local population, which indicates the prevalence of the military significance of missions. The range of travel varies from political, diplomatic, trade-economic, research to «entertaining», for example: hunting and tourism. It is thanks to letters, notes, reports and books of Russian and British researchers that the image of local people and their culture develops. Descriptions of travel or stories about life in the eastern countries captured important details of everyday life, both local residents and travelers themselves. It is shown that during the period under review the progressive change in the notion of Europeans among the peoples of Central Asia was manifested, which was facilitated by the diverse composition of travelers and representatives of different European cultures. In this sense, the image of the Western traveler had a positive impact on the transformation of traditional society into a developing industrial society and the introduction of technological and cultural achievements of a more developed culture into it.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491295.pdf
Number of views: 16      Download in PDF


17. Nugzar Ter-Oganov
Socio-Economic Situation and Legal Status of Georgian Jews in the XVIII century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1507-1517.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1507CrossRef

Abstract:
In the XVIII century in Georgia, where serfdom was the main form of socio-economic life, the georgian jews, as well as serfs of other nationalities, consisted of three categories of serfs: royal, landowners and church-monastic. All three categories of serf jews paid taxes in cash and in kind. The georgian historical documents of the study period indicate that the royal and landlord serfs sought to convert to serfdom, which was due to the fact that the church serfs received some relief in paying taxes. At the same time, all aspects of economic and personal life, as well as the legal status of serf jews, were regulated by the georgian orthodox church. In addition to agriculture, the georgian jews basically engaged in horticulture and viticulture, mainly engaged in small-scale trade, as well as national industry and handicrafts. They were obliged to pay taxes and carry a number of duties, namely to carry military service: to serve in the army of the land − "lashkari", as well as in the permanent army of the king Erekle II − "morige jari" or "morige." Despite some legal restrictions of the legal order, in practice, members of the georgian-jewish community enjoyed the same rights as their christian compatriots. Moreover, georgian jews had an unprecedented right in the history of the jewish diasporas to own christian servants. In the letters of sale the georgian jews appear in the role of both sellers and buyers of land. The documentary material allows us to speak about the existence of large Jewish land tenure in Georgia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491341.pdf
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18. Yuliya A. Lysenko
«Deputative Missions» of the Kazakh Khans, Sultans and Family Governs in the Court of the Russian Emperors in the first half of the 19th century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1518-1529.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1518CrossRef

Abstract:
This article reconstructs the history of the Kazakh Khans, Sultans and the Younger and Middle Zhuzes family governs who held “Deputative missions” in the Russian Emperors court in the 19th century. It has been found that Russia estimated these missions as the foreign ones. The Foreign Ministry Asian Department accepted them until 20th century. It proves formal principle of Russian citizenship for Kazakh governs which was formed in the 30–40s of the 18th century. The “Deputative missions” purpose was a discussion of the wide issues range: approving the Khan's rank, solving the problems of Kazakh-Bashkir land management, transiting Russian caravans through the Kazakh steppe, being under Russian jurisdiction for Kazakh people in the border area. The Charters on the Siberian (1822) and Orenburg (1824) Kazakhs had changed the Russian administration attitude towards “Deputative missions”. They liquidated the political autonomy of Zhuzes and allowed the access to the imperial court through the Interior Ministry. The goals consisted of the confirming the loyal feelings; getting the status of regional administration officials, nobles titles, pensions. The author examined the beginning of political and socio-economic regional integration into the general imperial space. The Younger and Middle Zhuzes were considered as an inner province of the Russian Empire since 40-s of the 19th century. Therefore, the admission of “Deputative missions” to the court was gradually reduced, all issues of interaction with the Kazakh society were transferred to regional authorities.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491443.pdf
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19. Sergey I. Degtyarev, Vladyslava M. Zavhorodnia, Lybov G. Polyakova
The Contribution of Nikolai Vasilievich Varadinov to the Development of Russian Civil Law and Historical and Legal Research

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1530-1537.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1530CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is dedicated to Nikolai Vasilievich Varadinov (1817–1886) – one of the first law professors of the Russian Empire, an eminent civil law scholar, and historian of jurisprudence. The biography of N.V. Varadinov is briefly represented. The authors paid the main attention to the analysis of his scientific works devoted to various aspects of civil law. Most of these studies were of an applied nature. In these works, Nikolai Varadinov pointed the genetic unity of the law of European nations; emphasized the need to study law in conjunction with the historical development of society, considered that it was necessary to refer to the progressive values of Western jurisprudence, taking into account national traditions and peculiarities.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491512.pdf
Number of views: 22      Download in PDF


20. Rafael A. Arslanov, Elena V. Linkova, Evgeny A. Solovyev
A Reflection of the Process of Learning of Russian Liberalism of the Xixth Century in Contemporary Researches (Analytical Review of the Historiography of Russian Liberalism)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1538-1551.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1538CrossRef

Abstract:
The analytical review examines the modern Russian literature and is devoted to the history of Russian liberalism of the 1840s–1880s and to its theorist Konstantin Dmitrievich Kavelin. The article is dedicated to the 200th anniversary of the thinker and covers such problems of historiography as the genesis and typology of Russian liberalism, its division and features of the main trends. The authors reveal the dynamics of the historiographical process development, specifically dwells on the debatable problems, different interpretations of which led to the formation of separate historiographical directions. Attention is drawn to the relevance of the topic associated, on the one hand, with the use of modern methodological approaches to the study of liberalism, and on the other, with reflections on its prospects in Russia of the XXI century, the acuteness and relevance of some theoretical provisions of the program of liberals of the past. It is emphasized that the study of the views and personality of K.D. Kavelin (1818–1885) gives new opportunities for understanding the history of Russian liberalism as a whole. The review analyzes and classifies the main modern interpretations of the theoretical heritage and activities of the liberal, reveals the contribution of individual scientists in the coverage of his multifaceted work, in the definition of the role in the social movement of the country. The results of the research are summed up, the prospects for further development of the topic are outlined.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491596.pdf
Number of views: 13      Download in PDF


21. Mikhail S. Belousov
The Schism in Decembrist Movement

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1552-1565.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1552CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines key episodes of political struggle in the Decembrist movement both inside and between the Northern and Southern societies in 1823-1825. The course and results of the Petersburg meetings of 1824 are analyzed on the basis of “Notes” of S.P. Trubetskoy from the collection of I.A. Shlyapkin. It is shown that the meetings not only did not contribute to the consolidation of secret societies, but rather became the culmination of the pressure of P.I. Pestel to the northerners. All his initiatives were rejected. A new interpretation of the development of the Southern Society in 1825 is given. Interaction of S.P. Trubetskoy with the leaders of the Vasilkovsky society contributed to the isolation of P.I. Pestel. During this period, the views of S.P. Trubetskoy undergo changes, and he begins to support the idea of a peripheral insurrection. Another important collision is the relationship of S.P. Trubetskoy and K.F. Ryleeva. The study of this plot leads to the conclusion that S.P. Trubetskoy was disappointed by the changes that had taken place. K.F. Ryleev evoked his antipathy and could not be perceived as an ally in the implementation of political plans. But the situation changed as a result the death of Alexander I and the beginning of the interregnum. The presented analysis leads to the conclusion that the reason of the defeat of the Decembrist uprisings should be sought not in subjective factors, but in the character of the ideological split that existed in a secret society.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491658.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


22. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Jasmin Gut
Sanitary Provision in the Caucasus during the Russian-Persian War of 1826–1828

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1566-1574.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1566CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the sanitary provision in the Caucasus during the russian-persian war of 1826-1828 years. The attention is paid to the spread of the first cholera epidemic in the Caucasus, as well as the establishment of a hospital base on the eve and during the Russian-persian war. There are used as materials the archival sources of the Central state historical archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia), as well as scientific and reference literature. "Acts collected by the Caucasian archaeological Commission" are of great importance in the work. In conclusion, the authors state that the russian-persian war of 1826–1828 was an important frontier for the russian administration in general, and for military physicians in particular, for understanding a number of problems. So, for example, it became obvious that it is necessary in wartime to treat to the arguments of representatives of local population very carefully and to stake more on the correct medical service of troops. The same applied to the prevention of epidemics such as cholera. Another important innovation was the final decision to use units from the local caucasian population in the army based on the results of the military campaign.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491729.pdf
Number of views: 17      Download in PDF


23. Gulmira S. Sultangalieva, Zhanna K. Dyussembekova
Distance and Distance Chiefs of the Kazakhs of the Orenburg Province (1830–1860)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1575-1583.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1575CrossRef

Abstract:
The article reveals the process of introduction the distance system on the territory of the Kazakhs of the Orenburg region and the appointment of the distance chiefs for almost forty years (1831–1868). It was important for the Russian administration to force the integration of the Kazakh Steppe into Empire by creating a fractional territorial administrative structure of governance, strengthening the influence of Russian power in the Steppe, since in the first half of the XIX century Orenburg region served as bridge for the advancement of the Russian Empire in Central Asia. Distant system gave the ability to systematically record the number of tents and the number of Kazakh people in the depths of the Steppe and collect tent taxes from the local population and regulate the relationship between border residents and nomads. The article is based on archival documents extracted from the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan and historical literature.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543491787.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


24. Viktor N. Borisenko, Oleg Yu. Plenkov, Elena G. Shchemeleva, Yulia I. Kuznetsova
Perspectives of Russian Grain Exports in 1846 (based on the Printed Output of the Imperial Agricultural Society of Southern Russia and the Imperial Free Economy Society)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1584-1591.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1584CrossRef

Abstract:
This paper examines articles published in the journals “The Transactions of Imperial Agricultural Society of Southern Russia” and “The Proceedings of Imperial Free Economic Society” between 1846 and 1847. Those publications were devoted to the Russian grain trade in European markets. The journals of imperial societies of agriculture and economy disseminated European experiences in Russia and highlighted the most outstanding achievements of agriculture within the country. However, in the context of the crop failures occurring in 1846 and 1847 in Europe, those titles drew attention not only to the technological features of grain production and the economic structure of different countries, but also to the prospects of grain sales. A high level of interest in the issue of Russian grain export to Europe was registered in the publications in “The Transactions of Imperial Agricultural Society of Southern Russia”. The issue of the grain trade with Great Britain gained special attention, because the repeal of the Corn laws in the summer of 1846 opened up new possibilities for a more stable export of Russian grain. Those conditions were made possible by the introduction of the constant minimal import duty. The authoring team concluded that the selected journals of the middle of XIXth century covered the Corn Laws in England, but did not mention the political aspects of this issue. On the pages of the magazines, experts rapturously commented on the sharp increase of Russian grain exports, and meanwhile, considered what measures had to be taken in order to satisfy the European demand for grain in subsequent years. At the same time, the experts stressed the fact that the demand for Russian grain that had suddenly increased between 1846 and 1847 can, in the future, vary unpredictably.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492391.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


25. Svetlana Khubulova, Boris Koibaev, Zalina Sosranova, Alan Tsarikaev
«Vladikavkaz Diocesan Lists» and as a Source on the History of Public Life in the Terek Region in the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1592-1600.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1592CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the role of the church press in the socio-cultural and political life of the Terek region of the second half of the XIX century – early XX centuries. ROC took an active part not only in missionary and teaching activities, but also included in educational, charitable and journalistic activities. For the first time, a regional diocesan seal became the subject of study. An analysis of the materials published on the pages of the Vladikavkaz diocesan statements allows us to state that the latter possessed sufficient potential of a consolidating platform, and in different periods could achieve this status. The materials introduced into scientific circulation give an idea of the process of the formation of the local church printed organ, the problems of its development, and also allow reconstructing the role of diocesan statements in the formation of the cultural space of the Terek region, the formation of the church intelligentsia of the region. The authors' collective was not permanent, new people were often invited, who could reasonably represent public opinion. An analysis of the materials of the Vladikavkaz diocesan lists made it possible to establish that the authors of the articles were not only clergymen, but teachers, journalists, public figures, which speaks of the public interest in this printed publication. A feature of the local diocesan statements was that along with the all-Russian functions, it performed additional, related to the ethno-confessional diversity of the region. As it was established, the Vladikavkaz diocesan lists performed several tasks simultaneously: first, the Orthodox clergy of the diocese consolidated; secondly, they strengthened the ties between the clergy and the believers, and third, mediated relations between the church and the secular world.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492482.pdf
Number of views: 13      Download in PDF


26. Alexander Suleymanov
"The Resources of Cold" in Economic and Socio-Cultural Practices of Rural Communities of Yakutia. The second half of XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1601-1611.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1601CrossRef

Abstract:
The presented article has shown an effort to reconstruct the exploitation history of additional possibilities provided by the presence of stable low temperatures in the region – the «Resources of cold» in economic and sociocultural practices of the rural communities in Yakutia. On the one hand, the selected chronological framework is allowing to reconstruct the role of the «Resources of cold» in the traditional life-support system before the Soviet modernization, on the other hand, it allows to relay on the considerably representative body of source data. Within the framework of the performed reconstruction, three main directions in usage of the «Resources of cold» were separated. They were of high importance in ensuring of transport linkages across the vast Yakutia areas. Particularly, the performed study allowed to determine that all the three routes of supply of the Kolyma region in Yakutia at the beginning of the XX century were based on the possibilities that were given by the presence of the «Resources of cold». The «Resources of cold» were also highly significant in the feed system. The possibility of all-the-year-round storage of food products in special ice-boxes, of deep freeze use at their preparation, as well as transportation of perishable food has played a major role in villagers' life, as it not only increased variability of dishes, but also quite often saved people from starvation. Moreover, sanitary and hygiene aspect of the «Resources of cold» was shown: consumption of melt water, house and linen disinfection, folk remedies were one of the means to improve the quality of life of the representatives of the rural communities in Yakutia during the second half of the XIXth – beginning of the XXth centuries.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492538.pdf
Number of views: 11      Download in PDF


27. Bakhytgul T. Tuleuova, Lyzzat K. Shotbakova, Gulnara M. Smagulova
Formation of the System of School Education of the Kazakh Society of Central Kazakhstan in the second half of the XIX – the beginning of the XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1612-1624.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1612CrossRef

Abstract:
The article considers the formation and development of the system of school education in the Kazakh steppe in the context of the educational policy of the Russian Empire in the second half of the XIX and beginning of the XX centuries. Based on archival materials, various documents and scientific literature, the stages of formation and development of the school system of the Kazakh population are analyzed. The process of formation of the educational system is considered by the example of a nomadic society Akmola and Semipalatinsk regions, which constitute today the territory of Central Kazakhstan. Detailed in-depth analysis of archival data and documentary materials makes it possible to say that the formation of school education was complex, including various forms of organizing the education of Kazakh children, such as boarding schools, gymnasiums, Russian-Kazakh schools, and aul schools. The ultimate goal of the educational policy of the Russian Empire in the Kazakh steppe was, on the one hand, the commitment to bring out Kazakh children from the influence of Muslim ideology, on the other hand, the upbringing in Kazakh children a love for the Russian Empire as their homeland. In addition, educating of Kazakh children has of a purely pragmatic nature, since one of the goals of creating schools for Kazakh children was to train personnel for the administrative structures of the Russian Empire.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492602.pdf
Number of views: 16      Download in PDF


28. Vladimir B. Karataev, Semen I. Adinyaev, Svetlana F. Artemova
Rion Rowing Flotilla of 1854–1856: Pages of History

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1625-1631.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1625CrossRef

Abstract:
The article deals with the development and combat use of the Rion rowing flotilla created by dividing the Azov cossack flotilla during the Crimean War. The attention is paid to the circumstances of the creation of the flotilla, its combat experience and attempts to modernize the rowing vessels during the war. There were used as materials the published documents from the “Acts of the Caucasian Archeographic Commission”. Documents of the Russian state archive of the navy (St. Petersburg, Russian Federation) and the state archive of the Krasnodar Krai (Krasnodar, Russian Federation) were also attracted. In conclusion, the authors state that the Rion flotilla created during the Crimean War took part in the hostilities. The ships of the flotilla were engaged not only in the search and seizure of small coastal turkish vessels, but also helped in organizing the crossings across the r. Rion. With the deterioration of the situation in the autumn of 1855, the longboats of the Rion rowing flotilla were destroyed due to the impossibility of their withdrawal upstream. After the improvement of the military situation, the Rion rowing flotilla began to rebuild again, and the armament of the rowing ships was further strengthened.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492669.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


29. Artyom Y. Peretyatko
The Choice of the Way to the Future: to the History of the Don and Orenburg Cossack Hosts as Polygons for Military and Economic Reforms in 1860–1870

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1632-1643.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1632CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the problem of alternative ways of development of the Cossacks in the middle of the 19th century, which poorly understood in Russian historiography. Author uses little-known archival materials from the manuscript department of the Russian National Library and the Russian State Historical Archives, some of which are involved in scientific circulation for the first time. The Orenburg Hosts became a " polygons for reforms " because its local elite supported moderate reforms, fearing that otherwise the government could begin to completely eliminate this Cossack Hosts (appeals to this really sounded). However, by the middle of 1870 it became clear that these reforms (based on the conscriptional service system) did not meet expectations. In these circumstances, the Ministry of War turned to the experience of the disloyal Don Hosts, giving representatives of its elite to develop an alternative draft of the military service of the Cossacks, based on the traditional general military service of the Cossacks. This project was supported by the atamans of the Caucasian Cossack troops and the commander of the Orenburg military district, which predetermined its victory. But decade later it emerged that both the "Orenburg" and "Don" versions of the reforms had a common flaw: the economic press was too heavy for the Cossack economy.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492783.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


30. Konstantin A. Abdrakhmanov
Merchants’ Hotel Businesses as a Part of Urban Everyday Life in the Towns of the Orenburg Governorate during the Post-Reform Period

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1644-1655.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1644CrossRef

Abstract:
The article contains an analysis of the processes related to the everyday life of merchants in the Orenburg province of the post-reform era. On the one hand, hotel business was just another type of everyday business activity for Orenburg merchants, another area where they could put into practice their entrepreneurial skills and ideas on how to conduct business properly, and where they strived for maximum profit. On the other hand, town hotels were acting as attraction points for people visiting Orenburg and the uyezd centers of the region, and they shaped the image of the local urban environment that media then spread throughout Russia. In the second half of the XIX – early XX century Orenburg merchants’ views on business ethics and the principles of business relations underwent a significant transformation. In the hotel business these transformations were expressed in the form of more comfortable living conditions for guests. Hotels began to provide not only clean rooms with comfortable furniture, ventilation, plumbing, water closets, but also restaurant quality food service, leisure-time activities, as well as technical innovations such as electric lighting in the rooms and telephones. For comfortable living of those wealthy citizens who did not own their own separate houses, entrepreneurs began to build multi-storey apartment buildings, not only solving utilitarian housing problems, but also creating an absolutely new architectural appearance of the city. As a result, completely new conditions were created in which the everyday life of not only the merchants but also all other citizens of the Orenburg province occurred, and they gradually formed a new urban lifestyle, a new urban everyday life.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492842.pdf
Number of views: 16      Download in PDF


31. Andrey A. Linchenko
"Other Slavs": Images of "Western Slavdom" in the Views of Russian National-Conservative Panslavists in the 70s–80s of the XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1656-1665.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1656CrossRef

Abstract:
The article reveals the features of the evolution of ideas about Western Slavdom in the works of Russian national conservative panslavists of the second half of the XIX century in the context of their ideas about the creation of the All-Slavic Union. Based on works by N.Y. Danilevsky, R.A. Fadeev, I.S. Aksakov, A.A. Kireev and K.N. Leontiev it was concluded that a significant transformation of the images of the Western Slavs in the 70s – 80s compared with the work of the 60s. The point of view is substantiated that the key significance in the transformation of attitudes towards the Western Slavs was associated with the interpretation of the religious foundations of the future unification and foreign policy changes of the late 70s – the first half of the 80s of the XIX century. In this regard, the deepening contradictions between the most prominent representatives of national-conservative panslavism became the reason for the polar assessments of the role and place of the Western Slavs in the planned all-Slavic union. The most opposite assessments were observed in the views of representatives of the "All-Slavic" (I.S. Aksakov, A.A. Kireev) and "Byzantine" (K.N. Leontiev) directions of Russian panslavism. These assessments are analyzed in the context of the evolution of the attitude toward Western culture in the 60s–80s. XIX century. All this allows us to talk about the ambiguity of the images of Western Slavdom, not only in the Russian social thought of the post-reform period as a whole, but also among representatives of the national conservative camp, in the views of Russian conservative panslavists.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543492918.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


32. Yulia V. Putilina, Vera N. Cherepanova, Irina A. Filippova, Violetta S. Molchanova
"Resettlement Fact" – As Seen by the Eyes of Peasants (adapted from Peasantsꞌ Letters): Latter half of XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1666-1673.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1666CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines the letters of peasants, migrants turned to relatives and fellow villagers, written in the late XIX – early XX centuries and covering various aspects of resettlement policy implemented at this time in the country. The study concluded that the resettlement was perceived by the peasants in different ways and ambiguously: there were both dissatisfied persons who were deeply disappointed by the resettlement process, who wanted to return to their native land, and satisfied with the resettlement: those who managed to establish their life and life, get good yields and profits from the crops grown. A typical trend is that in the letters of peasants, migrants often mentioned the words respect and "thanks for the generous mercy" shown by the authorities and officials (the allocated allowance, land, and other assisted), while sharp criticism in their address. Often such contradictory statements were found within the same letters. In General, the migrant peasants who participated in the resettlement program, judging by their statements in the letters, were distinguished by a certain naivety of judgments, the presence of inflated optimistic expectations from the resettlement program, or, on the contrary, excessive fears and fears, multiplied by rumors and inventions, often reaching absurd. As a rule, most of the peasants who decided to move to Siberia for new land plots did not have a clear idea of what awaits them. Tired of the oppression of the "masters", hoping for a "merciful King-father", they went into the unknown, trying, thus, to get away from the pressing problems and poverty, to get the long-awaited independence and freedom.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493002.pdf
Number of views: 14      Download in PDF


33. Nikolaj A. Mininkov, Ludmila V. Mininkova
The History of the Russian Region in the Context of Regional Geography (Popular Scientific Geographical Literature of the late 19 – early 20 centuries about Don)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1674-1683.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1674CrossRef

Abstract:
At a boundary of the 19-20th centuries the regional geography has gained development. It became one of popular branches of complex humanitarian and geographical knowledge. During this period fundamental works on regional geography appeared which belonged to Russia and its territories, including to Area of army of Donskoy. In major works on regional geography of this time in popular form questions of history of Don in connection with questions of his demography, ethnography, economy and settlements were stated. These essays and sections draw attention to the features of the history of the land of the Cossacks as its indigenous population, the changes in different spheres of internal life that took place during the historical development. The focus of the essays-the man, his culture, the processes of formation of the craftsman and warrior man of modern times, taking place under the influence of gradually developing modernization processes. Essays and sections are not devoid of some historical inaccuracies. The emergence of such literature at the turn of two centuries testifies to the growing public interest in the geography and history of countries and regions and the General humanization of culture, in which the problem of man on earth occupies an increasingly prominent place.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493062.pdf
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


34. Kuanysh M. Murzakhodzhayev, Zhuldyz M. Tulibayeva
On Certain Questions Concerning Education in Jadidist Schools in the Kazakh Steppe (the late 19th – the beginning of the 20th сenturies)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1684-1694.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1684CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is dedicated to the history of the emergence and spread of Jadid schools in the territory of modern Kazakhstan. In the late 19th – the early 20th centuries, under the influence of the Jadidist reforms in the sphere of religious education in the Russian Empire, the movement for the introduction of new-method schools began in the Kazakh steppe. The situation in Kazakh maktabs and madrasas, where there was no general program and terms of students’ education, secular disciplines were not taught, the Kazakh language was not studied, required radical changes and transformations of old-school Kazakh schools. In this article, based on unpublished and published materials of the Central State Archive of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as well as research works of Kazakhstani and foreign researchers, including the work of contemporaries and participants of the processes under study, the authors study the history of Kazakh religious schools transformation, and the introduction of a new education system in maktabs and madrasas. The attempts made to improve the religious education system in the Kazakh steppe were successful. A unified curriculum was developed, where along with religious disciplines and secular subjects such as algebra, geometry, astronomy, geography, history were studied. In addition, Russian and Kazakh languages were added to the new program. The age of students and length of training were defined and strictly set. The study of the history of the development of the Kazakh religious education system, the issues associated with its formation, is of undoubted interest for the scholars studying modern religious educational institutions in Kazakhstan.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493165.pdf
Number of views: 17      Download in PDF


35. Pavel A. Sungurov
The Development of Butter Production in the Regions of Western Siberia at the beginning of the 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1695-1702.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1695CrossRef

Abstract:
Siberian region since ancient times was famous for its riches. Undoubtedly, the main wealth of Siberia is people who lived there and live there. If we characterize the economic riches of Siberia in historical retrospect, we should say that they have often been modified, at present it is oil, gas, and other fossil resources. At the beginning of the XX century one of the main riches of the region was butter making. Few people know the scale of Siberian buttermaking, and, as a consequence, the colossal revenues that the state received when exporting this product. Since the middle of the XIX century in the process of intensive development of the industry included all new and new areas of the Siberian provinces, the key ones were: Kurgan, Tobolsk, Ishim, Tyumen, Tarsky, and other districts (later counties). The most powerful factor in the development of butter making was the construction of the Trans-Siberian railway. Butter, as a perishable product, without the possibility of urgent transportation, it was simply pointless to produce, it was for this reason that the butter industry and the railway in the region developed in parallel. In the last decade of the Russian Empire, butter production will finally become part of the strategic industries, as evidenced by the establishment by the Department of Agriculture in 1908 of special positions of instructors, designed to promote the development of artisanal butter production in all corners of Siberia. In the article, using various groups of sources, an attempt was made to thoroughly consider Siberian buttermaking, presented economic indicators of butter production, key areas of product production, studied the problems of livestock development, indicated the socio-economic transformations that took place in the territories involved in the production of butter.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493240.pdf
Number of views: 16      Download in PDF


36. Vladimir P. Trut
The System of Сossack Land Ownership and Land Use and Its Reformation in the Early Twentieth Century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1703-1711.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1703CrossRef

Abstract:
In the article on the basis of the analysis of archival and published documents and materials, national historiography on this issue, the problems of the system of Cossack land ownership and Cossack land use developed by the beginning of the XX century are investigated. The process of formation and legislative registration of this system is revealed. It is shown that the system of Cossack land ownership and land use that has developed by this period of time had a number of specific features due to the historically established and legislatively formalized special socio-political status of the Cossacks. The owner of the lands that made up its territory was the Cossack army. This rule has been repeatedly established and confirmed by the state legally in respect of each specific army during a particular historical period. In 1901 a special decree of the Emperor all the Cossack armies was fixed in perpetuity all the land that they owned. And according to the law of 1906 the lands of Cossack troops were considered their full property. In various troops had their own features in orders of land use. Over time, the concern of the official state bodies about the growing problems and contradictions in the system of Cossack land use has increased. The question of possible agrarian transformations in the Cossack areas was considered. In the existing system of the Cossack land tenure and land use of the Cossack armies the transition from land use communal to farmstead and bran, with granting on farmland of the rights of individual property was offered. The process of discussion of these proposals at all levels and the reasons for the refusal to carry out reforms in the agricultural sector of the Cossack life is analyzed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493307.pdf
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


37. Denis G. Yanchenko
The Issues of Defense, Internal Governance and the Status of the Chinese Eastern Railway in Government Policy at the beginning of the 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1712-1724.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1712CrossRef

Abstract:
The article examines attempts at administrative reorganization of the Chinese Eastern Railway after the conclusion of the Portsmouth Peace Treaty of 1905. The military high rank officers sought to maintain control over the road and intended to restore the lost positions in the region. The formal reason for this could be the transportation of goods and troops, ensuring the road safety, but at the base it was a desire to return the undermined influence on the Far Eastern affairs. The materials of the Russian State Historical Archive (RGIA) reflect the struggle on this issue among the military and political elites. After the defeat and the conclusion of the Portsmouth Peace, the definition of the further strategy seemed to be the prerogative of civilian agencies (the Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs), not the military, but this did not happen because of the resistance of the military. Minister of Finance V.N. Kokovtsov did neither plan to renounce the influence on the Far Eastern affairs, nor to entrust the control of the border guard in Manchuria to the military. Quite a logical move by the minister was an indication of foreign policy obligations as a fundamental principle. For a short time, in the conditions of the Duma monarchy in Russia, local governmental structures appeared in Harbin and a part of the settlements. New internal political conditions of the Duma monarchy and preparation for war in Europe forced the government to adjust the goals and objectives in the Far East. The projects, which were discussed by the Russian government, for the Russian order were quite liberal at the beginning of the 20th century. Russian population did not receive additional privileges, and the state authorities of Russia did not officially participate in the formation of public administration. It gave the complete dependence of the Society of the CER from the Ministry of Finance.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493375.pdf
Number of views: 13      Download in PDF


38. Konstantin N. Tarasov, Elena Yu. Mokerova, Evgenia N. Nemchaninova, Ekaterina V. Bykova
Russian Conservatism of the beginning of the 20th century: Between Dogma, Illusion and Reality

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1725-1733.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1725CrossRef

Abstract:
The article represents the analysis of the socio-political program of the russian right monarchic movement of the beginning of the 20th century. Studying of historical experience russian right is represented very relevant in modern conditions of search of optimum ways of development of the country. The base of sources is made by materials of the leading right periodicals, official documents of monarchist parties and organizations, documents of personal origin. In the center of a research – studying of specifics of a ratio and interference of ideology and practice of the russian conservatism from this point of view his relations to modernization processes. Social and economic projects of the Russian conservatives, the political program and the national and confessional doctrine of the domestic right monarchic movement of the beginning of the 20th century have been analysed. An assessment of extent of influence of the Russian historical process of 1900-1917 on evolution of the right ideology is given. Also weaknesses are revealed its strong. Authors have come to a conclusion that domestic conservatism of the period of the late empire has tried to create the program of national focused modernization of the country alternative to more radical liberal and socialist. The strength of the right ideology was that she has most sharply shown and sought to rethink contradictions of the Russian modernization. However act as a factor of stabilization of social and political development the Russian right couldn't. They underestimated positive sides of modernization, held archaic socio-political institutes. The main reasons of defeat of the Russian right steel radicalization of public moods and activization of activity of political opposition, especially in the conditions of wartime. Being incapable to accept real historical process, conservatives lost on it influence more and more. By the time of the crash of the monarchy the right camp was in the most disorganized state in comparison with other political forces.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493445.pdf
Number of views: 16      Download in PDF


39. Anvar M. Mamadaliev, Andrey V. Venkov, Natal'ya V. Miku, Aude Médico
On the Ratio of the Linear Forces of the Russian 1st Pacific and Japanese Squadrons during the Russian-Japanese War of 1904–1905

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1734-1743.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1734CrossRef

Abstract:
The article is devoted to the analysis of the ratio of opposing linear (armored) forces of the russian 1st Pacific and japanese squadrons during the russian-japanese war of 1904-1905 before the start of hostilities, and the coverage of the tactical and technical characteristics of armored ships and the strategy of their use by the naval leadership. There were used as materials the pre-revolutionary, soviet and modern historiography. The published documents as well as materials of personal origin, such as memoirs, memoirs and diaries have also been applied. The principles of historiography, scientific objectivity and consistency, which are traditional for russian historiography have made the methodological basis of the research. In the process, the problem-chronological method was used, which allowed to consider the topic of the study in chronological order, paying attention to the issues related to the preparation of the russian-japanese war, as well as the situation in the foreign political arena. Also, the paper attempts to assess the chances of winning the 1st Pacific squadron, taking into account its combat capabilities on the eve of the war in terms of the general battle. This article discusses the diplomatic situation before the russian-japanese war and analyzes the strategic plans of the parties for its conduct.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543497217.pdf
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


40. Svetlana V. Darchieva, Anzor V. Darchiev
The Liberal Intelligentsia between the Autocracy and the Revolution: I.V. Baev on the Crisis of Power in Russia in 1917

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1744-1751.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1744CrossRef

Abstract:
The article analyzes the views of the well-known representative of the Ossetian intelligentsia of the early 20th century, publicist and juror Ismail Baev, on the causes of the crisis of power in Russia, which led to dramatic revolutionary events in 1917. The relevance of the selected topic is justified by the increased interest of the society towards historical personalities who were eyewitnesses revolutionary events of 1917 and civil war. Their memoirs and letters allow us to more fully recreate the picture of social and political processes taking place in the country. It is noted that Baev did not consider the revolution a result of the conscious activity of political parties. It was the result of a popular discontent that had accumulated during the war. A clear understanding of the negative aspect of the revolutionary element led him to a fairly skeptical assessment of February 1917. This determined the ignoring of any meaning of the February revolution. It was just an unimportant episode in the destructive revolutionary process that eventually led to the power of the Bolsheviks. Baev's critical attitude to the Provisional Government, which sought only to retain its powers, is shown. It was precisely in the unwillingness and inability to address the pressing issues of the state, having granted them consideration to the Constituent Assembly, Baev saw the cause of the "internal crisis" of the Provisional Government, which eventually led to a revolutionary catastrophe and the "final death of the government." Baev considered it necessary to resist these negative consequences. In the articles "The Crisis of Power" and "Fundamentals of Federalism", which he wrote in preparation for the October 1917 conference in Vladikavkaz, whose work was aimed at creating a South-Eastern Union of Cossack troops, mountaineers of the Caucasus and free peoples of the steppes, Baev analyzes the situation that has developed in Russia by the autumn of 1917, expresses his own view on the causes, nature and consequences of the revolutionary events that have taken place in the country and proposes a program of necessary reforms aimed at creating a federative in Russia state.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493581.pdf
Number of views: 12      Download in PDF


41. Andrey Yu. Dvornichenko, Aleksandr E. Kotov
The Centenary of the Great Upheavals in the Mirror of the Latest Russian Historiography

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1752-1765.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1752CrossRef

Abstract:
The authors of this article analyse the latest russian historiography of the Great Russian Revolution of 1917 and related events: the First World War and the Civil War. They take mainly journal scientific publications for the “jubilee” of the Revolution in 2017 and 2018. It is clear that the jubilee “set” of academic literature more prominently marked disagreements, and at the same time, the weak points of the historiographic field, which had emerged much earlier. In the foreground there are theoretical questions: what caused the social explosion in Russia, could Russia avoid the revolution, the eternal Russian question "who is to blame" and many others. An important role in the latest discussions plays the estimation of the modernization of Russia at the beginning of the 20th century, its nature, prospects and role in the actual revolutionary events. The most vivid example of these disputes is the ongoing discussion around the concept of B. N. Mironov. In the series of attempts to find the causes of the revolution two deserve intent attention: the discussion organized by the editorial board of the magazine "Rossiyskaya Istoriya" about the monograph written by V.P. Buldakov and T.G. Leontieva, as well as a survey of historians opinions which by the compilers of the "February Revolution" miscellany had been undertaken. In recent years, also continued attempts to place the Russian revolution in the global context and most importantly, there are numerous publications devoted to particular aspects of the “great upheavals”: individual social strata and groups, imperial and post-imperial regions. Of particular interest is the question of the role of monarchical groups in the Revolution and the Civil War. The study of the “history of concepts” and “policy of memory” has been developed rapidly in recent years - and in this context there are some important latest publications devoted to the perception of the revolution by contemporaries and descendants. In general, modern historiography intensively accumulates material, preparing the site for a further successful start in the race for scientific truths.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493644.pdf
Number of views: 18      Download in PDF


42. Vladislav I. Goldin
Hundred Years of 1917 in Russia: Lessons of History and Present Day

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1766-1773.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1766CrossRef

Abstract:
The paper is devoted to the centenary jubilee of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and studies its modern understanding and historical lessons. The author analyses the discussions, tendencies and results of the research of the main problems of the revolutionary process of 1917 in the period of its centenary. In the contemporary literature exists all spectrums of political views, opinions and judgments, variety of interpretations and evaluations. The article explores the discussions about the origins and reasons of the Russian Revolution, its main landmarks and first of all February and October of 1917 and gives their modern interpretations and explanations. The author characterizes the significance of the Russian Revolution for the fates of Russia and the world in 20th century. The article discovers the results, problems, contradictions and achievements of the Soviet epoch in comparison with the contemporary situation in Russia, explores the fates of socialism in the modern world, historical lessons of the Russian revolutionary process for the present day.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493711.pd
Number of views: 15      Download in PDF


43. Viktor N. Razgon
Strategy of Economic Adaptation of Unauthorized Migrants in the Altai Region during the Period of Stolypin Reforms

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 50. Is. 4: 1774-1783.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.4.1774CrossRef

Abstract:
In the article, based on the analysis of the materials of the agricultural census of 1917, the strategy of economic adaptation of unauthorized migrants in the Altai District during the Stolypin reforms is disclosed. One of the elements of this strategy was a more extensive economic use of arable land (mostly leased) compared to old residents and legal migrants. If the old residents half the arable land were left under the reservoir and the fallow, which in general corresponded to the traditional for Siberia system of agriculture, more than 2/3 of the arable land was occupied by unauthorized migrants under crops. The strategy of economic adaptation of unauthorized settlers included active occupation of handicrafts that were scarce in Siberia (tailors, shoemakers, carpenters, etc.), as well as the use of such a method of survival in new natural and geographical conditions and the accumulation of funds as hiring for work in households of old-timers. The author have come to the conclusion, that although the strategy of unauthorized migrants was dominated by the motives of survival, the growth in the economic capacity of their farms, as the residence time increased, indicates a positive dynamics of the process of their integration into a new habitat.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493800.pdf
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44.
Russian Historical Journal “Bylye Gody” publications for 2018
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543493895.pdf
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45.
full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1543570008.pdf
Number of views: 28      Download in PDF





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