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«Былые годы» (Bylye Gody) – российский исторический журнал

E-ISSN 2310-0028
Периодичность – 4 раза в год.

Издается с 2006 года.

3 September 01, 2018

Articles and Statements

1. Leonid A. Bobrov, Amet-han A. Sheykhumerov, Alexey V. Salnikov
Stabbing Long-Shafted Pole Weapons of the Crimean Tatars and Nogais in 1440s – 1650s. (According to the Written Sources)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 884-914.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.884CrossRef

The article analyzes the materials of european, russian, ottoman and crimean-tatar written sources of 15th – mid-17th centuries containing information about spears and javelins of crimean tatars and nogai. In the texts written in Latin language this weapon is referred as "hasta", in English – as "lance" or "horseman's staff", in Italian – as "lanza", in Russian – as "kopye" i.e. spear, etc. The term "kopie" is usually used in the works of Polish authors of 16 – first half of 17 centuries as well, as later the Kalmyk term "dzid" is. It is known that the Crimean Tatars used various types of stabbing long-shafted pole weapons for close and distant combat. There are no descriptions of Tatar spears in the most part of written sources. Only Giles Fletcher draws the attention of readers to the similarity of Tatar spears (horseman’s staff) with the bear spear "with which they hunt bears". Thus, some Tatar spears could have a wide-bladed spearheads. Important changes in the warfare of the East European nomads occurred in 15-16 centuries due to various reasons – military and political as well as economic ones. Comparing to the warfare of the Golden Horde of 14th century, the importance of mounted armored spearmen significantly decreased in the warfare of the Crimean Khanate of 16th century. So many contemporary authors did not consider it necessary to include spears in the list of the main weapons of Crimean Tatars (Paolo Giovio, Marcin Bielski, Andrzej Taranowski etc.), and some of them even directly denied that Turkic nomads of the region possessed the spears (Siegmund Freiherr von Herberstein, Michalon Lituanus, Blaise de Vigenère). Although spears were still in use by Tatars throughout the whole period mentioned, they were not used widely (in some periods one might say even insignificantly). In general, the stabbing long-shafted pole weapons were significantly inferior in popularity to bows, sabers and, possibly, crushing weapons (maces, clubs, basalyk, «maslak» etc.). The most part of spearmen in the troops of the Crimean Khanate of 16th century consisted of wealthy Tatar warriors and some militiamen. There is no information regarding the special detachments of spearmen in the Crimean-Tatar troops. Even now there is no reason to consider not numerous spearmen to be the significant factor of the hit-and-run tactics of the Crimean-Tatar cavalry of 16th century which used bows and sabers. Spears became more important in Tatar armies in the first half of 17th century by some degree but they still were not spread widely so they were not noted by many contemporaries again. Tatar-Nogai spearmen attracted some attention of contemporaries in the Battles of Berestechko (1651) and Warsaw (1656), but in the battle of Konotop (1659) they were practically invisible. Important changes in the weaponry of the Crimean Khanate started in the early 1660s. Judging from the materials of written sources, Tatars started to adopt spears en masse as the result of centralized state policy as it was necessary to withstand the Kalmyk (Oirat) cavalry, whose warriors used stabbing long-shafted pole weapons widely.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535631340.pdf
Number of views: 206      Download in PDF

2. Roman A. Martyushov, Yuriy V. Shirin
Difficulties Interpreting of Written and Archaeological Sources of Information of Ferrous Metallurgy of the Kuznetsk Tatars

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 915-930.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.915CrossRef

The article shows the origins of subjectivism in assessments of metallurgy and smithcraft development level achieved by the historical ancestors of the Shors – the Kuznetsk Tatars. Based on critical analysis of the archive documents dated from the 17th to the 18th century, the statements on the lead role of the population of the Kuznetsk yasak county in supplying the Yenisei Kyrgyz, the Teleuts and the Dzungars with edged weapons and armors have been deemed unfounded. An researching of the antiquities of the region was noted as unsatisfactory. In there does not reflecting a real situation in any sphere of economic activity of the Kuznetsk Tatars of the 17th-18th centuries. Any references to archaeological materials or absence thereof in assessment of metallurgy development level achieved by the population of the Mountain Shoria should be treated as speculations for the time being. Suggests another interpretation has been proposed for some of well-known archaeological sources. New materials about a metallurgy of the Kuznetsk Tatars are given, accumulated for the past 30 years. Found metallurgical complexes can’t be identified unequivocally without competent morphological evaluation of а slag and structures, or without special technological and chemical analyses. Proposes hypotheses aimed at removing most of the contradictions in interpretation of all types of sources. Further focused archaeological research of this topic can shed a new light on economical adaptation of the South Siberian natives and transformation of their practices caused by contact with the Russian people.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535631465.pdf
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3. Olga N. Naumenko, Evgeny A. Naumenko
The Ob Ugrians-Muslims: Historical and Psychological Factors of the Islam Penetration in the Traditional Culture

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 931-939.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.931CrossRef

The article is devoted to the process of penetration of Islam into the life of Ob Ugrians from the point of view of their cultural and historical psychology. The authors rely on the theory of "poor living environment", proving that in the most difficult climatic conditions the human resource of Ob Ugrians was spent exclusively on survival, and it did not allow them to dynamically develop the existing elements of culture and create new ones in accordance with the level of their spiritual needs. Development proceeded on the "principle of complementarity", when the components of other cultures were borrowed, assimilated and accepted as their own. The authors believe that Islam became one of such important donor cultures due to the coincidence of a number of worldview with the Ob-Ugric culture and active missionary activity of the medieval Muslim States. In the XVII – early XX centuries, the process of the spread of Islam continued through the contacts of the Ob Ugrians with the Siberian Tatars, including through the conclusion of marriages. In the context of the Christianization of the XVIII – XIX centuries, the characteristics of Islam in the culture of the Islamized groups of Ob Ugric peoples began to die out, but partially preserved to the present time. However, the centuries-old influence of Muslims was so strong that some groups of Ob Ugrians disappeared, merged with the Muslim population of the region. The authors project the historical experience on the current situation, paying attention to the numerous facts of the marriage of Khanty and Mansi with Muslims who migrate to Ugra from the CIS countries and seek to gain a foothold in a new place, using social protection and the system of benefits provided to the families of indigenous small peoples of the North. This facilitates ethnic assimilation processes and poses a threat to the Ob-Ugric culture and identity.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535631593.pdf
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4. Konstantin V. Samokhin
The War as “Challenge” of Socio-demographic Modernization in Russia during the 18th – the early 20th century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 940-948.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.940CrossRef

Socio-demographic processes in Russia during the 18th – the early 20th century is analyzed in the paper. Modernization type of the Russian society in that period is defined as catching up, mobilization one encouraged by “challenges” of the West which consequently had a wave character. The main idea of the article is that war conflicts of the Russian State with the West civilization countries were one of basic factors which stimulated the development of the Russian society’s socio-demographic modernization development. In this case main parameters of wars were the scale of war actions and their results for the Russian side. It is proved that Russian people’s socio-demographic transition from the traditional society to the modern one was quite evident only in the middle of the 19th century. There were only requisites for socio-demographic modernization before that period. It was concluded that the Crimean war and the First World War had the great influence on the Russian society during those processes because those war conflicts had wide geographical scale of war actions and negative results for the Russian State. The Great War of 1914-1918 was such serious “challenge” to the Russian (Slavonic) civilization that socio-demographic modernization took the divergent way which was different from tendencies of the Late Empire period.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535631666.pdf
Number of views: 117      Download in PDF

5. Olga P. Tsys’
Material Support of the Clergy of the Tobolsk North in the XVIII – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 949-958.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.949CrossRef

The main sources of income of the parish clergy of the Tobolsk North in the XVIII – early XX centuries are considered in the article. It is pointed out that under conditions of prevalence among the parishioners of aboriginal, newly converted to Christianity, the lack of suitable land for parishes, traditional sources of financing for European Russia were closed or restricted: payment for the use or leasing of arable land and haymaking, requisitioning, donations of wealthy parishioners. The clergy had to find additional sources of existence, among which traditional trades and trade were named. The weakness of control over the state of affairs in the rural outskirts created opportunities for abuse by some of the clergy in relation to the indigenous population. It is noted that the improvement of material security for the northern clergy was due to the gradual increase in the state funding of the parishes of foreign parishes. There is a replacement of cash payments by kind. At the same time, the attempts of the clergy to obtain ownership of their own fisheries were invariably rejected. The authorities realized the importance of the rural clergy as one of the most important links between the aborigines and the rest of the world, the bearer of traditions that ensures the integration of the local population into the Russian socio-cultural space. The clergy saw in the state's assistance the only opportunity to raise their level of prosperity in the absence of alternative sources of income. It is concluded that by the end of the period under consideration the amount of salaries received from the treasury for the abbot was quite sufficient to sustain life at an acceptable level.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535631756.pdf
Number of views: 110      Download in PDF

6. Leonid V. Sidorenko
Sacheverell Case as a Clash of Religious and Political Interpretations of the Glorious Revolution in England in the early XVIII сentury

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 959-969.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.959CrossRef

The Glorious Revolution of 1688-1689 in England was a unique example of the exceptional unity of social and political forces, but which after a few months was replaced by ideological, political and religious controversies. Theoretical views on the principles of the revolution played an important role in the origin of this instability. In contrast to the ideas of the Whigs and the Low Church leaders about the right of resistance, the High Church clergy and the Tories defended the divine right and passive obedience doctrines. Clashes between Whigs and Tories, Low and High Church reached its climax during the trial of Dr. Henry Sacheverell in 1709-1710, prosecuted for the public insult of the Whig interpretation of the Glorious Revolution. The author analyzes the causes of this trial, examining interpretations of the Glorious Revolution, and explores the riots in London in support of the doctor caused by the growth of his popularity. The article concludes that the process over the preacher has become a discourse of the legitimacy of the English constitutional government. Despite the formal victory of the Whigs, the doctor and his doctrines were in demand by society. In the short term, this ensured the victory of the Tories in 1710 elections and their retention of power till the Hanover succession. But after 1714 the reactionary clerics like Sacheverell were out of work, while Whigs finally approved their view over the Glorious Revolution in the Kingdom and won the battle for the Church, reducing the severity of religious question.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535631878.pdf
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7. Stepan V. Dzhundzhuzov, Sergey V. Lyubichankovskiy
The Influence of the Imperial Policy of Acculturation on the Formation and Evolution of the Power Elite among the Stavropol Christened Kalmyks (1737–1842)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 970-979.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.970CrossRef

The imperial policy of acculturation pursued the goal of integrating the alien population into the Russian economic and sociocultural space. In the presented research this process is considered on the example of structuring of the power elite from representatives of the feudal-tribal nobility among the Stavropol christened Kalmyks. It manifested itself both in the formation of the military-bureaucratic status of the Kalmyk managers, and in the imposition of standards for a settled way of life. The sources for the study were materials from the funds of the Russian State Archive of Ancient Acts (Moscow), the Russian State Military Historical Archive (Moscow), the State Archives of the Orenburg Region (Orenburg). Part of the archival materials used in the article were S.V. Dzhunzhuzovym prepared and provided for publication in the thematic collection "Volga Stavropol Kalmyks...". The information contained in them allowed us to build a canvas of historical events, in the context of the development of which the empire defined and improved the methods of its acculturation impact. The situational approach and the historical comparative method used in the course of the research made it possible to show and compare the changes in the legal position of the feudal-serving nobility of baptized Kalmyks, depending on the political strategy used by the government in a certain period. In our opinion, the management elite, formed from Christian-dominated owners and zaisangs, was used by the empire as a kind of subordinate mechanism in establishing control and management over ordinary Kalmyks. For a little more than a century of the existence of the Stavropol Kalmyk settlement, the attitude of the government to the representatives of the Kalmyk nobility has undergone drastic changes – from elevation and support to total deprivation of all special rights and privileges.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535654854.pdf
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8. Badma K. Salaev, Danara A. Suseeva, Tamara S. Esenova
Activity of V.N. Tatishchev on the Arrangement of the Kalmyks when he was a Governor of Astrakhan and the Head of the Kalmyk Commission (1741-1745)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 980-991.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.980CrossRef

The article is devoted to the activities of V.N. Tatischev on the resettling of Kalmyks when he was the Astrakhan Governor and the head of the Kalmyk Commission (1741–1745). It was based on the written documents stored in the National archives of the Republic of Kalmykia, previously not introduced into scientific circulation. A number of documents providing comprehensive information about important events and people’s lives in one of the regions of the Russian State in the first half of the XVIII century relates establishment activities of Tatishchev. The Kalmyks who in the XVII century joined to Russian Federation actively participated in opposing its enemies, led a nomadic life, practiced Buddhism, engaged in cultivation of the traditional four types of livestock – cattle, sheep, horses, camels. The emerging situation in the Kalmyk steppe in the first half of the XVIII century after death of Donduk Ombo Khan caused the Tsar’s administration concern: there was no agreement between the representatives of the Kalmyk elite, for this reason some of them not only expressed the idea of the migration out of the Russian state, but also took certain practical actions in this direction. The great role in preserving the integrity of the Kalmyk Khanate of that period was played by V.N. Tatishchev. A short time, when V. N. Tatishchev was the head of the Kalmyk Commission, was an important period in the history of the Kalmyk people – a period of further rapprochement with the Russian and other peoples living in Russia, active participation in public-political, socio-economical and cultural events related to the development of the Russia in the first half of the XVIII century. Thanks to his skillful diplomatic activities were halted resettlement sentiments raised by representatives of the Kalmyk elites in that period.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535654624.pdf
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9. Olga B. Belikova
Birch Bark Tobacco Boxes of the XVIII-XIX centuries of Turkic People in the Taiga Region of Chulym (the South of Western Siberia)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 992-1008.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.992CrossRef

Drawing on archaeological materials, the article looks into issues associated with tobacco consumption in the south-eastern periphery of Western Siberia, more specifically, in the taiga region of Chulym (the Chulym River which is the right tributary of the River Ob). It provides an analysis of eight birch bark tobacco boxes – found on 18–19th century sites – that were used by the aboriginal population of the region, namely, the Chulym Turks. These boxes are designed for storing crushed tobacco or tobacco mixtures. Tobacco smoking known to be present in Europe since the late 16th century had become widespread in Russia by the early 17th century. According to scientific literature, the indigenous population of Siberia was largely introduced to tobacco in the 17th century (A.V. Shapovalov believes that this most probably took place in the period from the 1610s to the 1630s). The Chulym Turks are thought to have encountered tobacco and smoking accessories in the 17th century at the earliest, through the Selkups from the neighbouring Narym Ob region. From written ethnographic evidence it is known that by the 1770s the Chulym Turks had become familiar with smoking in great numbers. From the 18th to the 19th centuries, birch bark tobacco boxes started to appear in their everyday life and ritual practices and were most definitely part of female burial rites. The study presented in the article revealed that these Chulym Turks’ tobacco boxes were all executed in a much similar style as far as their shape and design are concerned. The six tobacco boxes, ornamented with symbols of agriculture and fertility, were identified to be clearly of Russian origins. Thus, this set of Western Siberian artefacts constitutes a relic of 18–19th century Russian birch bark craftsmanship. The origins of the remaining two undecorated tobacco boxes are presumably Russian as well. Russian tobacco boxes such as these acted as objects of exchange between Russian merchants and the Chulym Turks.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535643540.pdf
Number of views: 108      Download in PDF

10. Pavol Tišliar, Branislav Šprocha
Topography of the Ruthenian Population in Slovakia in the 18th Century through the First half of the 20th Century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1009-1018.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1009CrossRef

The Ruthenian population appeared on the territory of Slovakia during the so-called Wallachian colonization period, which took place from the 14th century to the 16th century. They settled in mountainous and foothill regions suitable for sheep and goat grazing. Their settlement was more distinct in the territory of eastern Slovakia and although they were exposed to the long-term assimilation of the Slovak and Hungarian language environment, they preserved their language and culture. This paper analyzes the topography of the Ruthenian population, problems related to the understanding of Ruthenian ethnicity and their development especially in the course of the 18th up to the 20th century in Slovakia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535644240.pdf
Number of views: 99      Download in PDF

11. Vladimir G. Ivantsov, Yurii N. Makarov, Lyudmila G. Zimovets, Natal'ya A. Shevchenko
The Policy of the Tsarist Authorities to Involve Mingrelia in the Political and Legal Space of the Russian Empire (1774–1857)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1019-1027.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1019CrossRef

The article analyzes the process of involving Mingrelia in the historical and legal space of the Russian Empire on the basis of published documents and materials, which are the main sources on the topic of research, surveys and reminiscences of eyewitnesses of the events that took place, as well as materials of the scientific literature. The identification of features of this process in Mingrelia in comparison with neighboring Imeretia and Guria took an important place. The attention is drawn to the reasons for the temporary length and complexity of the transformation of the management system in Mingreliya from its administrative autonomy to its limitation and abolition.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535653682.pdf
Number of views: 116      Download in PDF

12. Alexandra V. Spichak
Reasons for Leaving the Church Service by Clergy in the second half of the XVIII – early XIX centuries (on the Example of the Tobolsk diocese)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1028-1036.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1028CrossRef

The article is devoted to the actual problem of regional history of the Russian Orthodox Church. The main source of the research is the materials of the state archive in Tobolsk. On the basis of archival materials the author first described the most common reasons for leaving a Church service of the clergy in the second half of XVIII – early XIX centuries the article presents the most interesting case, revealing the process of removal of the clergy from their posts. Analysis of the documents of the Tobolsk spiritual Consistory reveals two types of dismissal of the clergy: by personal desire and by order of the diocesan authorities. The initiators of leaving the Church Department could be themselves clerics, their colleagues, superiors, parishioners. The source documents were the petitions of the clergy and laity, reports and Donostia colleagues, deans, and spiritual boards. According to archival documents, most of the clergy were dismissed in old age, that is, they retired. Other reasons for leaving the service were poor health, misconduct, widowhood, mismatch of position, unwillingness to serve the Church, lack of funds for family support. Petitions of clerics often combined two requests-about dismissal and about appointment to the vacant place of their son or grandson. Thus, the conclusion of a number of modern historians about the frequent consolidation in the Synodal period of the clergy in one parish is confirmed.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535632649.pdf
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13. Ivan A. Ermachkov, Larisa A. Koroleva, Natalia V. Svechnikova, Jasmin Gut
General Ermolov and His Role in the Evolution of Public Health Service in the Caucasus

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1037-1045.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1037CrossRef

The article considers the role of general Ermolov in the organization of public health service in the Caucasus. Emphasis is given to the characteristic features of the epidemiological situation in Imereti and other coastal areas of the north-western Caucasus. There are used as materials the archival sources of the central state historical archive of Georgia (Tbilisi, Georgia), as well as scientific and reference literature. "Acts collected by the Caucasian archaeological commission" are of great significance in the work. While solving the tasks there were used the general scientific methods (system analysis, concretization, generalization). The specification of particular aspects is of particular importance in the study, namely the detailing of historical episodes allow authors to model a complete picture of events. For example, this refers to the complex process of establishing the russian military presence in the Caucasus, which in turn made it possible to choose the location of troops, taking into account the climatic situation. The authors come to the conclusion that by the time of the announcement of general Ermolov – the commander-in-chief of russian troops in the Caucasus, the russian sanitary service has accumulated a wealth experience in the region. This practice has been gained in terms of epidemics of plague and a number of other diseases and allowed to take more effective and timely measures to minimize losses. And actively anti-epidemic measures were carried out thanks to the position of general Ermolov. However, it is necessary to understand that in many respects the concern of general Ermolov about the personnel of the russian troops was due to the fact that the formation of the russian military presence in the region had already been completed and the troops had more freedom to choose the cantonment sites.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535632808.pdf
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14. Andrei Yu. Dvornichenko, Evgenii A. Rostovtsev, Dmitrii A. Barinov
«Petersburg Historical School» XVIII – early XX century: Historiographical Context and Research Methods

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1046-1060.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1046CrossRef

The phenomenon of so-called St. Petersburg historical school has long attracted the attention of researchers. The main sources of the formation of this scholastic discourse date back to the first decades of the XXth century (texts of P.N. Milyukov, A.E. Presnyakov, S.F. Platonov). It was on them that the subsequent historiographic tradition of the Soviet and post-Soviet period was based. Meanwhile, the researchers interpreted the concept of the «St. Petersburg Historical School» differently, singling out various factors of its formation. In this context, the work of S.N. Valk, A.N. Tsamutali, V.M. Paneyakh, B.V. Anan’ich, S.O. Schmidt, V.S. Brachev, a number of other researchers can be analized. It is noted in the article that in the last decade historians have distanced themselves from the dogmatic, categorical descriptions of the phenomenon of the «St. Petersburg school», paying more attention to the problems of the anthropology of science, the study of communications in the scientific community of the second half of the XIXth and early XXth centuries. In this article, the authors represent some results of a research project designed to take a new step in studying the problem of the St. Petersburg historical school. Basing on the extensive biographical database, the researchers attempted to consider the collective portrait of the school through the prism of prosopographical analysis. Its results not only made it possible to demonstrate clearly the distribution of the hull of St. Petersburg historians of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries between various scientific departments and institutions, but also enabled the authors to put forward a number of well-reasoned hypotheses that overcome the usual historiographic cliches associated with the description of the St. Petersburg historical school of the pre-revolutionary period.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535632900.pdf
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15. Pavel A. Merkulov, Anatolii L. Eliseev, Dmitrii V. Aronov
State Youth Policy in Pre-Revolutionary Russia: from Social Stratification of Society to Full Social Regulation

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1061-1073.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1061CrossRef

In the history of the formation of the state youth policy in Russia a special role belongs to the XIX century. This century, which included several epochs in the history of the country, became decisive for the formation and development of such an important regulator as the state youth policy. At the beginning of the twentieth century it was one of the secondary directions of social regulation, bearing all the signs of the varieties in social policy. As a result of the systemic reforms of Alexander II, the state youth policy received a powerful boost for renewal in the society, developing at a faster pace in all spheres of social, political and economic life. Eventually, Russia entered into a full-fledged state youth policy in the twentieth century. I see it as a unity of the three basic elements – youth, as a separate social group identified by the state, a specialized legal and regulatory framework and a system of interrelated government bodies (for the 19th century general competence). Analysis of all three components of the state youth policy of Russia until 1917 allows us to work out the criteria for its periodization, as an integral part of the social policy of the state as a whole. It shows the existence of a clear goal-setting in the activities of the state authorities in shaping the regulatory and administrative-management component of the youth policy with respect to the student, working and other categories of youth, to trace the dynamics of changes in the context of the general political situation in the country.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535633304.pdf
Number of views: 108      Download in PDF

16. Veronika S. Khizhnyak, Maria A. Lipchanskay, Marina N. Laydasheva-Ilicheva
Confessional State Policy of Alexander I

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1074-1083.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1074CrossRef

Freedom of religion is considered a fundamental human right in the modern world. In Russia, this right has arisen long time ago, but earlier it was significantly different in content from the modern one. Moreover, it had its specifics in different eras. Confessional policy is a part of the state policy, which under the conditions of the absolute monarchy largely depended on the views of the head of state. Public policy of Alexander I, including the policy on issues of religion, bear the imprint of the distinctive worldview of the Emperor and of the political background of that time: the revolution in France and the Patriotic war of 1812, which caused some changes in the further development of society and law. Based on the study of legislative acts adopted during the reign of Alexander I and some legislative acts of his predecessors, as well as taking into account new theoretical and methodological approaches, the article deals with the development of state policy on religious issues in Russia in the period from 1801 to 1825. The article uses normative legal acts on religious matters adopted during the period under review, the opinions of scholars and public figures of the past in relation to the content of these acts, as well as the opinions of modern researchers. The results of the state policy pursued by Alexander I were discussed, the main characteristic features of his state confessional policy, its principles and objectives were highlighted. The paper presents previously unpublished data from the State archives of the Saratov region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535633380.pdf
Number of views: 108      Download in PDF

17. Evgeniy V. Kryzhko, Petr I. Pashkovsky, Sergey I. Natalevich
The «Great Game» in Turkestan in the First Half of the XIX сentury: the Geopolitical Interests of the Parties

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1084-1091.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1084CrossRef

The article considers the problem of geopolitical interests of the British and Russian empires in the process of the «Great Game» in Turkestan in the first half of the XIX century. It is established that the UK's approaches were based on the principle of freedom of one's own actions in the international arena, maintaining the balance of power, understanding of India's strategic importance and the need to protect against the Russian expansion of the Central Asian region that borders with India and is important in the military-strategic and trade-economic aspects. It is substantiated that the Russian empire proceeded from an understanding of its geopolitical characteristics of the largest land power, which determined the imperative of territorial expansion in order to prevent possible attacks from outside. Strengthening of Russian positions in Central Asia allowed to limit and control the influence of Great Britain in the region, and subsequently – gave an opportunity to gain access to the Indian Ocean. Based on the analysis of a broad source base and numerous studies, it is revealed that the methods of realizing of the geopolitical interests of the parties coincided in many respects, which was manifested at the beginning of the XIX century in the form of diplomatic missions of both empires to the Central Asian region in order to gather information about the moods of the local population and elites. It is shown that the result of the strengthening of Russia's position as a major supplier of industrial goods to Turkestan becomes activation of the British penetration into the region. At the same time, competition between empires took the form of an open military-diplomatic confrontation. Strengthening Britain's expansion in Central Asia in the early 1840s threatened Russian interests in the region, which actualizes the need for Russia to use military-political methods of rivalry.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535633527.pdf
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18. Dmitry V. Ovsjannikov
To the Issue of the Imam Shamil's Campaign to Kabarda in 1846 year

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1092-1100.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1092CrossRef

The article analyzes the reasons, the course and the results of the march of the detachments led by Imam Shamil to the territory controlled by Kabardian princes Anorovs and naib Nur Ali to the vicinity of the Daryal canyon in April 1846. The social processes in the region launched in the Central Caucasus region in the 1820s by commander of the Separate Caucasian Corps A.P. Ermolov is also paid attention in addition to the military-tactical aspect. The social nature of the ruling groups in Kabarda (princes Anzorovs and other aristocratic families) and the leaders of the movement for jihad in Chechnya and Dagestan (Imam Shamil and most of his naibs) is considered. The author comes to the conclusion that both the class distinctions and the basic characteristics of the social structure of Kabarda on the one hand, and of Chechnya and Upland-Dagestan, on the other, caused insuperable subject contradictions. The armed confrontation of the mountain people with Russia played a key role in shaping the prerequisites for Imam Shamil's efforts to unite with the Kabardian rulers, and also extend his influence to the mountain communities of the ghalghai and kists that are close to the Chechens. This attempt to unite the mountain peoples united and firm hand of the imam under the banners of Islam was not successful. The lack of mass support for the movement headed by Shamil from the side of ordinary Kabardians and Vainakh societies Aki and Tsori put Shamil and his naib in front of the prospect of being surrounded by Russian troops. Only the skillful tactical decisions of the mountain commanders and the relative passivity of the Russian command saved Shamil from the catastrophe. All this is understood on the basis of a wide range of materials, including unpublished archival sources.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535633617.pdf
Number of views: 105      Download in PDF

19. Vladimir N. Shaidurov
Crown Gypsies of Bessarabia and Russia’s State Policy (1828–1836)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1101-1110.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1101CrossRef

In the early 19th century, Russia incorporated Bessarabia that was home to both sedentary and nomadic Gypsies. By the 1810s, Russia already had accumulated its own experience of sedentarizing Gypsies. In 1828, the territory of the Bessarabia Region became the target of another campaign launched to bind Gypsies to land. The experience obtained could be later leveraged in other regions of the Russian Empire. The government allocated land to Gypsies, provided them with money to buy seed grain, agricultural tools and implements, timber to construct housing and farm buildings. However, the campaign failed. In the paper, we will review the campaign in terms of its key events, identify the role of the central government and local authorities in the way they put the campaign into operation and formulate the outcomes of the effort. The primary material for the paper includes documents of the Russian and Moldovan historical archives, which are introduced for the scholarly use for the first time.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535633721.pdf
Number of views: 111      Download in PDF

20. Yulia V. Putilina, Oksana V. Ustinova, Olga V. Natolochnaya
Features of Wedding Traditions and Rituals in the Territory Siberian Region in the XIX – Early XX Centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1111-1118.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1111CrossRef

The article deals with the peculiarities of wedding ceremonies typical for the territory of Siberia in the XIX-early XX centuries. it is established That at this time marriage was considered by the public as a duty of Orthodox Christians to get married in the Church when making a decision to create a family, and as a great mystery, and as a duty to parents and older relatives, and as a cherished goal and dream of the young. In addition, marriage was a severe necessity of that time, as it was a strong relationship with a large number of family members that allowed people to survive and maintain their own economy, despite the poverty conditions typical for many settlements of the country. Wedding traditions in Siberia had their own characteristics. In the Siberian region, the grooms and their relatives, as a rule, did not "watch" potential brides, while in many regions of the Russian Empire, this ritual is still maintained. In Siberia, most often did not attach much importance to the bride's dowry. Each family gave on the condition and opportunities. As the main reference points in choosing a future wife in the Siberian region were the ability to farm, good health, gentle disposition and a good reputation of the young family.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535633837.pdf
Number of views: 103      Download in PDF

21. Goran Rajović, Dmitry O. Ezhevski, Alla G. Vazerova, Milica Trailovic
The Plague in the Caucasus, 1835–1839: Features of Detection and Counteraction

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1119-1124.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1119CrossRef

The article discusses the outbreak of plague in the Caucasus, which took place in 1835-1839. The attention is paid to the circumstances of its occurrence, localization and adoption of anti-epidemic measures. The archival documents of the state archive of the Krasnodar region (Krasnodar, Russian Federation) served as materials for the preparation of the study. The special literature and scientific publications reflecting these issues were also used. The methodological basis of research were the principles of objectivity and historicism, assuming an unbiased approach to the analysis of the problems, critical attitude to the sources, making judgments as a result of the analysis of a set of facts or phenomena in the development context and the historical setting. For example, the analysis of a set of facts revealed the reasons for traders’ interest in hiding information about the presence of plague in their regions. The authors conclude that the plague in the Caucasus in 1835-1839 had a pronounced local character. Almost non-stop plague in Turkey and Persia was brought with smuggled goods to Abkhazia and Cherkessia. The anti-epidemic measures of the Russian administration in the Caucasus made it possible to quickly detect the source of infection and take measures to prevent the spread of plague to other territories, including the internal regions of the Russian Empire. However, the preservation of the plague foci in the neighboring russian territories is not allowed until January 1839 to remove the strict quarantines at borders and within the territory of the Caucasus.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535654058.pdf
Number of views: 112      Download in PDF

22. Tatiana I. Troshina, Natalia S. Avdonina, Maksim Yu. Zadorin
«The Last Frontier of the Russian Civilization»: the Economic and Demographic Aspects of the Territorial Integrity of the State in the Far North-East

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1125-1139.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1125CrossRef

The article is based on the large amount of archival materials dealing with the problem of preserving the borders of Russian territories in the context of state crisis. The object of the study is the European Russia northwestern territories, which attracted the interest of the nearest neighbors having their fishing resources. Ethnic groups living in the western part of the area, retaining their cultural identity, were gradually included in the Russian super-ethnos, which was accompanied by the governmental policy. The economic development and settlement of the western part by immigrants from neighboring states created the danger of a gradual separation of these territories – first of all, cultural and economic, and then political separation from the Russian state. Governmental activities were aimed primarily at protecting political boundaries. At the same time, the first decades of the twentieth century gave many examples of the loss of the state border territories by the weakened state formations on the basis of various «plebiscites». Therefore, the preservation in the «disputed territories» of the representatives of the titular nation, their economic independence and sovereignty became the most important factor of the state integrity. In the article, this thesis is confirmed by comparing the economic situation of the population of the northern territories of the Arkhangelsk Gubernia in the relatively prosperous period of the second half of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century, and in the extreme conditions of the potential destruction of statehood, (taking as an exploratory «site» the events of the military revolutionary era (1914) -1920) and the early stage of the «New Economic Policy»).

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634145.pdf
Number of views: 108      Download in PDF

23. Peter P. Rumyantsev
Financial Support of Gendarmerie Supervision over the Gold Mining Industry in Siberia in the Middle of the 19th Century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1140-1148.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1140CrossRef

The article is devoted to the investigation of the financial provision of gendarmerie supervision over the private gold mining industry in Siberia in the middle of the 19th century. In article such questions are also considered as identification of material needs of gendarmerie officials in the matter of financial support for their activities; to point the ways for solving that issue; to identify the relationship mechanisms between different levels of government officials in solving that issue. The sources for the article were primarily the gendarmerie agency documents, which are stored in the central and regional archives of Russia. The research is based on the application of such historical methods as narrative, historical-genetic and comparative-historical. As a result of the research, the author came to the following conclusions. An analysis of the financial support of gendarmerie supervision over private gold mining industry in Western and Eastern Siberia demonstrates the interests of various departments that differently looked at the essence of that supervision and saw the tasks for the agents of that supervision in their specific way. The gendarmerie corps together with the general-governors of Western and Eastern Siberia saw gendarmes as the executives of the government policy of supervision over the gold mining industry in Siberia. They believed that the gendarmerie officers should not feel lack of support to carry out their direct official duties, and also should be independent of gold miners. The Ministry of Finance, on which the allocation of funds for travel expenses to the gendarmerie officials depended, did not consider that the latter fulfill the most important governmental task, so they do not need additional appropriation of funds. In the process of this confrontation between the departments, the position of gendarmerie won, because it was supported by the Tsar himself, and the gendarmes subsequently received enough money to travel around the gold mines. The result of these trips was a large gendarmerie documentation on the situation in the gold mining industry, which is an important historical source.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634216.pdf
Number of views: 106      Download in PDF

24. Lyazzat A. Bissembayeva, Bakhytzhan S. Aimbetov, Berik T. Zhubanyshov, Bibijamal K. Omarova
Features of the Land Policy of the Tsarist Administration in Semirech’ye in the second half of XIX century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1149-1158.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1149CrossRef

The article deals the features of the land policy of the tsarist administration in the Semirechensk region in the second half of the XIX century. Research the features of development of Kazakh nomadic land use in the period under review, the presence of tillage, the impact of the imposed administrative measures on the traditional culture of nomads. The reflected are main stages of the decision of the land device in the region, distinctive features of land use at semirechensky Cossacks. As a result of research was found out that the local population did not oppose the reforms of the land policy of the Russian authorities in the Semirechensk region. This was a decisive factor for the adaptation of migrants in new places. The administration planned the prosperity of agriculture at the expense of immigrants from Russia and Eastern Turkestan. This intention in some way met their expectations. The indigenous population, Kazakhs, were engaged in cattle breeding. It is not surprising that the Russians were skilled farmers compared to the indigenous population. The local administration made efforts to develop effective land use and attracted more Kazakhs in this direction. By the end of the XIX century there were appeared Russian-Kazakh settlements of peasants for the development of land management. The land policy of the tsarist administration to determine the nomadic routes of the Kazakhs did not cause much resistance, because it was carried out on the basis of equality and proceeded to solve this problem. For this reason, the situation in the region remained stable in inter ethnic issues. Semirechenskaya oblast differed from other regions of the Russian Empire in its multi-ethnicity, and it is known that the causes of ethnic conflicts lie in the lack of equality and justice of the current government.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634323.pdf
Number of views: 118      Download in PDF

25. Vladimir B. Karataev, Polina Yu. Grosheva, Ludmila V. Shkvarya
From the History of the Development of Controlled Aerostats (Airships) in the XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1159-1165.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1159CrossRef

The article deals with the history of development of controlled aerostats (airships) in the XIX – early XX centuries. Emphasis is given to three main modifications of airships: with a rigid, semi-rigid and semi-soft body. There were used as materials the specialized literature on the history of airships, as well as reference and scientific literature. The study applied a set of scientific methods: multifactority and integration, chronology, typology, comparison, etc., which together provide reliability of the results on the problem under study. So, for example, studying the experience of developing controlled balloons, the authors paid attention to the features of their designs, which allowed the airships to be used for civil and military purposes. The authors concluded that the dynamic development of airships in the XIX – early XX century led to the creation of several types of products with a rigid, semi-rigid and semi-soft body. Each of the modifications had its pluses and minuses. If the product with a rigid body was more suited to the needs of civil aviation due to the need for stationary hangars, the balloons with semi-rigid and semi-soft shells were more practical and could be deployed in the field quickly. This predetermined a fairly wide use of the latest on the fronts of the First World War.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634416.pdf
Number of views: 96      Download in PDF

26. Yuliya A. Lysenko
"The Case of the Loss of the Russian Peasant Settlers in the Steppe Region of Religious and Moral and National Character": the Position of the Russian Orthodox Church (end of XIX – beginning of XX centuries)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 166-1174.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1166CrossRef

In article on the basis of documents administration of the Orenburg, Omsk and Turkestan dioceses, as well as legal sources – decisions of the Holy Synod examines the position of the Russian Orthodox Church on the question of reducing the role of Orthodoxy in the everyday life of Russian peasants-immigrants. This social phenomenon emerged in the 80-90-ies of the XIX century and was connected with the beginning of mass migration of Russian peasants-settlers in the Steppe region. According to the Church, the reasons for the mass acculturation of the Kazakhs of Russian immigrants and their transition from Orthodoxy to Islam were: low level of religious literacy of immigrants, the absence in the region developed the parish and Church-school system, a small number of temples and churches, training priests, the presence of the region's largest old believer and sectarian centers. To prevent further acculturation of Russian immigrants Kazakhs and enhance their moral and religious level, by the diocesan authorities of the Steppe region was the complex of measures, approved by the Holy Synod. He suggested the formation of diocesan Committees for the Church of the life of immigrants, the activity of which was aimed at accelerating the establishment of the parish and the school system, monastic construction. An important area of work of the Russian Orthodox Church in solving the problem of increasing religious knowledge among the peasant population of the Steppe region was targeted religious propaganda related to the development of a network of parish libraries, conducting interviews, Liturgy and "polemical" talks, readings, distribution of religious literature of Orthodox subjects, opening Sunday courses for adults.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634481.pdf
Number of views: 107      Download in PDF

27. Igor V. Kryuchkov, Natalia D. Kryuchkova
Russia and Austria-Hungary: Non-Political Dialogue of Two Empires in the last third of the XIXth – the beginning of the XXth century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1175-1185.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1175CrossRef

The interaction between Russia and Austria-Hungary in the field of economics, tourism, science and education in the last third of the XIXth – the beginning of the XXth century is considered in the material. The migration flows between two neighbouring Empires are analyzed as a separate issue. The article touches upon the interest of Vienna and St. Petersburg in growing links in these areas. The archive material, diplomatic documents, the contents of periodical press, statistic data and memoirs serve as historical sources for studying the given issue. Finally, the authors come to the conclusion that regardless intense political conflicts erupted between Russia and Austria-Hungary, a cross-cultural dialogue, economic links and migration flows are being actively developed between two Empires. The priority growing links of Russia with the Austrian half of the Habsburg Empire that was ahead of Hungary in economic and cultural terms and where Slav population played a greater role in socio-economic, political and cultural life of the society is underlined in the article. Non-political contacts aren’t being reduced after the Balkan crisis in 1908 that put Russia and Austria-Hungary in a difficult situation being a threat to the beginning of the war. The given fact was manifested with good reason in the first half of 1914.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634587.pdf
Number of views: 95      Download in PDF

28. Valery N. Ratushnyak, Tatyana V. Ratushnyak
Agriculture in the North Caucasus in late 19th – early 20th century: Evolutional Challenges

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1186-1194.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1186CrossRef

North Caucasian region as integral part of the Caucasus is justly considered one of the most ancient world agricultural centers. The origins of the North Caucasian contemporary agriculture date back to late 19th century when crop farming had become strategic one in the regional agricultural output especially in its steppe part. However the agricultural progressive growth in the region wasn’t carried in no uncertain terms that depended firstly on the socioeconomic conditions (possession of much land in steppe zone and land scarcity in the foothill, rent development etc.). Humus high content in the steppe plough layer predicated the long-term application of extensive agriculture systems and also systemless soil exploitation. But that entirely didn’t cause slack period in development of capitalist production where hired labor and the newest technic were being used more widely. Fur that time using of fallow-swidden farming resulted from economic efficiency. Not high crop yield but on large land size was paid back by means of insignificant expenses of extensive farming. But while reducing field boundaries Kuban Cossacks and Stavropol peasants more often were passing on to more intensive systems of soil cultivation. In the foothills where crop farming was developing by means of higher labor efforts of manufacturer there was curtailing of several grain crops resulted from their growth in the steppe zone.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634663.pdf
Number of views: 104      Download in PDF

29. Sergey A. Ikonnikov
Salary as a Source of Material Security of Parish Clergy of the Central Black Earth in the second half of the XIX century – early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1195-1202.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1195CrossRef

In the second half of the XIX – early XX century the problem of material security of parish clergy drew attention not only priests and bishops, but also representatives of the secular public. Orthodox priests played an important role in life of the Russian Empire. Meanwhile, materials of the Special commission on affairs of orthodox clergy had shown that the vast majority of priests was dissatisfied with the material security. The problem was that donations for private services were extremely unstable. Priests and deacons have been forced to be humiliated before parishioners, to demand a payment for commission of sacraments. Many priests considered that establishment of a salary could solve material problems. In the article on the basis of archival documents and published sources the state salary is considered as a source of material security of parish clergy. The state tried to enter a salary throughout Synodic period. However the author comes to a conclusion that government measures had superficial character and weren't real steps to improvement of a situation. The state had no financial resources and couldn't appoint a salary to all clergymen. The government allocated churches only small sums. In 1913 less than a half of parishes of the Central Black Earth's dioceses earned a salary. The problem of providing clergymen with salaries hasn't been solved.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634864.pdf
Number of views: 98      Download in PDF

30. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Anatoly N. Loshkarev, Dmitry V. Matveev
Reconstruction of the Order’s Numbers of the Votkinsk Plant’s Shipbuilding Workshop on 1865-1902

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1203-1215.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1203CrossRef

Based on the documentation of the Votkinsk plant, there was reconstructed the list of the vessels and the floating crafts, that were built by the shipbuilding workshop from 1865 to 1902. Then it was combined with a list compiled on the basis of merchant fleet registers and ship’s rolls, and is superimposed on known order numbers. It turned out that the plant built more vessels and floating crafts than there are available rooms. This paradox can be explained by the following considerations. Several boats could have a common number, especially if they were delivered in the semi-finished products with final assembly in place (as was the case for the Aral Flotilla). There was a duplication of information and one vessel could under different names twice get on the list. The Kama Shipyard, which was built on Kama for a while, was built to avoid expensive alloys on Votka and Siva, could have its own order numbers. Based on the analysis of the list obtained, the following conclusions are made about the functioning of shipbuilding in Votkinsk. In the indicated chronological framework, there is a reorientation of production from the Naval Department to private orders and orders from other government agencies. Despite the reorientation of production, the plant maintains approximately constant proportions between self-propelled and non-self-propelled vessels (approximately three to one). What, probably, was necessary for the modernization of production in the conditions of industrial revolution of the second half of the XIX century.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535634955.pdf
Number of views: 119      Download in PDF

31. Irina V. Pivovarova, Yulia V. Putilina, Yulia V. Zubareva, Anvar M. Mamadaliev
Coverage of the Siberian Theme on the Pages of Historical Magazines of the second half of the XIX – early XX centuries (on the example of the magazine " Russian Antiquity»)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1216-1223.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1216CrossRef

The specialized historical magazine "Russian antiquity", which was published from 1870 to 1918, regularly placed on its pages materials that in one way or another affect the Siberian theme. At the same time, the image of Siberia was often revealed through publications of materials about specific people or mythological characters – people from Siberia or living (actually or presumably) some important period of their life in the Siberian region. Decembrists, their wives, elders, historians, archivists, well-known statesmen, representatives of the clergy and even robbers, in one way or another glorified the Siberian region, often represented its peculiar symbol associated in the perception of the professional historical community, as well as a simple readership, with the image of Siberia. In general, we can say that the editors and authors of the "Russian antiquity", judging by the frequency of placement of relevant materials, were in constant search of a certain ideal image – public, state, spiritual figure, who made a special contribution to improving the life and life of Siberians, coverage of regional issues and current problems, romanticization of the image of Siberia as a "remote" region and at the same time – rich in spiritual and material terms, the most important part of the country.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635061.pdf
Number of views: 101      Download in PDF

32. Svetlana A. Khubulova, Larisa Ch. Khablieva, Zalina E. Dzottsoeva, Supyan S. Magamadov
Persian-Citizen Population of the Terek region in the Socio-Economic and Cultural Processes of the second half of XIX – early XX centuries

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1224-1236.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1224CrossRef

For the first time, the role of persian subjects in the socio-economic and cultural-demographic development of the Terek region in the second half of the ХIХ and early ХХ centuries was studied on the regional archival material. During the analysis, the main stages of the formation of the persian population in the region and their legal status are highlighted. The sex and age structure was reconstructed, the main activities of this category of foreigners were identified: economic, sociocultural; the contribution of the persian diaspora, as well as the patterns of its participation in the development of the region as a historical and cultural phenomenon, is shown. The reconstruction of these processes was carried out by introducing into the scientific circulation of previously unpublished archival materials. It was shown how, by creating conditions for social and economic modernization in the Terek region, foreign diasporas were formed, which became one of the driving forces for modernizing economic life and developing the social life of the region. The russian state understood the undoubted significance of the positive qualities that immigration gave, especially to the North Caucasus. As it was established, between the persian immigrants and the local population processes of interaction, integration and synthesis of different ethnic cultures and traditions took place. The territory of the region was open to immigrants from neighboring countries without restrictions on confessional or ethnic grounds. The immigrants opted for the Terek region as a result of finding their niche. In the course of the study, the task was to study the general problems of citizenship, the legal foundations for the presence of foreigners within the Russian Empire, which made it possible to identify the peculiarities of the legal status of Persian subjects in the Terek region. The analysis of the material allows us to conclude that the activities of the persian population had a positive impact on the life of the region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535654342.pdf
Number of views: 110      Download in PDF

33. Irina N. Litvinova, Oksana A. Karagodina
Volga Germans: Famous and Influential People in the Saratov Region of the early XX century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1237-1247.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1237CrossRef

The article presents the material about famous people – the germans of the Volga region, who have achieved major success in social and entrepreneurial activities, which became the property of regional and russian history. Similar material about the Volga germans was collected by agents of the publishing company "I. Brendel and P. Zinner "(Germany) in the Saratov province in the summer of 1914 for the future almanac. In due time because of events of World War I the book didn't appear in Russia. However information on the influential territorial and city public figures, representatives of the intellectuals, merchants, honourable citizens and large handicraftsmen of the german nationality who have made a powerful contribution to development of economy and socio cultural life of Lower Volga area is of interest and today. Authors analyze documentary data on personnel from the position close to agents of the German publishing house. In article bases of private enterprise and individual undertakings of the former colonists in the Saratov region of the beginning of the 20th century reveal. The diligence and thorough approach to economic activity the russian germans actively contributed to the development of flour-grinding, manufactory, oil milling, brewing industries in the region, also innovative types the practician for representatives of the business world of Volga German are revealed. The names of the first former colonists who deserved recognition of the state in the form of appropriation of hereditary honorary citizenship were determined.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635328.pdf
Number of views: 114      Download in PDF

34. Ivan A. Kolokolnikov, Yuri A. Petrushin
Musical and Educational Activity of E.G. Gorodetskaya in Irkutsk in the Context of Development of the National System of Musical Education (1901–1917)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1248-1257.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1248CrossRef

In the period before the revolution of 1917 the system of musical education in Russia was still in the stage of formation. In this regard, a huge role in its formation was played by the activities of musicians–enthusiasts. Most of them worked in the organizations, subordinated to the Imperial Russian Musical Society (IRMO). At the same time, private music schools played very important role in the development of music education in the regions of Russia. Their role in the peripheral regions was especially great. A good example of true asceticism in the field of music education of this era is a multifaceted activity of E. G. Gorodetskaya in 1901-1917. Staying in Irkutsk province and having developed the musical classes of IRMO and later her own music school, she trained a considerable number of high quality musicians. Educational activity of E.G. Gorodetskaya made the invaluable contribution to the development of musical culture of Siberia.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635399.pdf
Number of views: 101      Download in PDF

35. Artyom Y. Peretyatko
"We Have Not Done Anything": The First Stage of Work on the Official History of the Don Cossacks (1902-1908)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1258-1269.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1258CrossRef

The article is devoted to the realization of the all-russian project of the official history of the Cossacks in 1902-1908 on the Don. The author shows that this project, which is considered unsuccessful and which is almost forgotten, in fact allowed the creation of books that have become regional scientific classics. But it did not happen on the Don. The main obstacle for the study was the necessary for preparatory work to collect historical sources. The note "About the Organization of Historical Works in Cossack Hosts" required such work, but it was not clearly regulated in this document. As a result, I.P. Popov, who was originally charged for writing the Don history, and a commission of members of the Don statistical committee, which tried to draw up a work plan later, failed to effectively organize the collection and systematization of documents. And in 1908 the general meeting of the committee decided to attract professional historians for this work. It referred to the fact that nothing had been done at last six years. The author comes to the conclusion that, despite all the shortcomings of the government project, it created certain prerequisites for writing the first full-fledged history of the Don army, but these premises were missed because of mistakes by the local administration and those amateur historians who were involved in her work.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635496.pdf
Number of views: 94      Download in PDF

36. Tatiana V. Gryaznukhina, Alexander G. Gryaznukhin, Denis N. Gergilev, Larisa F. Malyutina
The Russian Intelligentsia’s Search for New Forms of Creative Expression during the Inter-Revolutionary Period (1905-1917)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1270-1277.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1270CrossRef

This work focuses on the activities of the Russian and Siberian artistic intelligentsia in the inter-revolutionary era (1905-1917). It particularly highlights the influence of socio-economic and political aspects on the nature of the intelligentsia’s creative work. Its ignorance of day-to-day realities, its complete detachment from life resulted in Russia’s artistic elite living in a self-created world. Misunderstanding of the people led to its idealization, the belief that after passing through the cleansing furnace of the revolution, it will come out spiritually renewed, capable of perceiving beauty. The defeat of the revolution and the realization that even in the case of its victory, the spiritual rebirth of society could hardly have come overnight, plunged the intelligentsia into a state of despondency, lethargy and pessimism. This state found its expression in decadence as a special kind of mindset. An analysis of the reasons underlying the changes that occurred at that time shows that these changes were predetermined by a failure to understand the essence of events, inability to explain them and adapt to them. The socio-political and socio-economic events in central Russia could not but affect the Siberian artistic intelligentsia’s creative life. Here, however, the search for new forms and means of artistic expression was not so profound. Their fascination with modernism was more often than not transient or accidental. Both artists and spectators preferred to adhere to realistic traditions in art. A sober, realistic view of life helped the Siberian intelligentsia to relatively quickly overcome the moods of decadence and pessimism in their creative work. This article analyses some examples of how decadence influenced the work of the most prominent figures of the Russian art.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635556.pdf
Number of views: 105      Download in PDF

37. Elena M. Redkina, Alexander B. Khramtsov
Development of Out-of-school Education in Western Siberia at the beginning of the XX century

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1278-1286.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1278CrossRef

In article the main directions of development of out-of-school education in Western Siberia in 1905 – february, 1917 are considered. The contribution to this work of provincial and city managements, private (public) initiatives is noted. The forms of actions of out-of-school education which have gained development in Siberia are allocated, their group is given: lecture, library and publishing, museum and excursion, art and esthetic and sports. Out-of-school education has gained uneven distribution in the territory of the region: in the large cities (Tomsk, Novonikolayevsk, Tyumen, Tobolsk, Kurgan, Barnaul) various forms, in small settlements – only separate have been presented. Among characteristic features – not readiness special techniques, lack of accurate dominants of development of out-of-school activity which general direction can be considered developing. She has served as an auxiliary view of education and self-education of the population and also means of fight against addictions. Thanks to it leisure of youth was filled, the sociocultural horizons of semiliterate people were broadened.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635660.pdf
Number of views: 106      Download in PDF

38. Tatyana G. Karchaeva, Evgeny N. Garin, Mikhail D. Severyanov
«Little Speransky» of Siberia: on the Activities of Yakutsk, Yenisei Governor Ivan Kraft from 1906 to 1914

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1287-1295.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1287CrossRef

The contribution of the governor Ivan Kraft to the socio-economic, political and cultural development of the Yakutsk region, the Yenisei province and Siberia, as a whole, at the beginning of the 20th century was considered in the article. On the basis of a detailed analysis of literature, pre-revolutionary periodicals, as well as an array of archival material, often first introduced into scientific circulation and raised in the State Archives of the Krasnoyarsk Territory and the National Archives of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), a conclusion was made about the high degree of professionalism of I. Kraft, a manager who held a provincial post in Siberia at such a difficult time in Russian history. The comparison of the information from the literature with archival materials showed that at the end of the governor's term in the Yakut region this territory reached a new, more advanced level of civilizational development, the Yakut population and the Russian population became familiar with the benefits of modern society, the level and quality of life increased due to the development of education, health care, social security. Short life in the post of the Yenisei governor, compared with the Yakut governor, was no less successful for the history of the Yenisei province. From 1913 to 1914 Central Siberia had exemplary indicators on the policy of combating wholesale drunkenness among the inhabitants of Siberia and Russia as a whole, which was explained by the personal participation of the governor in organizing and carrying out concrete actions. I. Kraft's contribution to the solution of the alien issue in Siberia and the Central Asian Russian regions was assessed by the central government structures and the scientific community, which enabled him to become a member of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society and to earn a memory among grateful descendants.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635718.pdf
Number of views: 103      Download in PDF

39. Orazgul H. Mukhatova, Gulzhan B. Tleubekova, Nurgul N. Kurmanalina
Enlightening Activities of the Tsarist Government in Semirechye in the early XXth century (According to the Documents from the Fund of the Head of the Semirechye Region’s Resettlement Administration)

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1296-1306.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1296CrossRef

In the late XIX – early XX century, Tsarist Russia actively pursued a policy of resettlement in the Kazakh steppes. A lot of work to improve the socio-economic status of resettled peasants was carried out by the authorities. One of such works is educational or educational activities. This fund contains the data reflecting the work carried out by the department in the field of education. On the basis of these documents, it is possible to determine the direction of the tsarist government’s policy in the Semirechye. The basis of the article is the documents of the head of resettlement department of the Semirechye region of the Main Directorate for Land Management and Agriculture (19th Fund), which are kept in the Central State Archives of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The fund manages the documents of the state employees on the activities of the Semirechye resettlement institution. Among them there are: circulars, instructions, orders, journals, minutes, reports, reports, references, recommendations. The largest source base in the fund is reporting data and personnel documents. The enlightening activity of the Russian Empire in the Semirechye began with the construction of schools and churches, as this work was associated with religious and educational affairs. Several institutions participated in this process: the Ministry of Public Education, Resettlement Department, Special Committee, Semirechye Regional Committee, Uyezd Committees, Turkestan Diocesan Committee, etc. The funding were also allocated by the Great Synod, Alexander III fund, and from the pocket of the common people. As a result, at the beginning of the XXth century in Semirechensk many schools, churches, parishes were built, in addition there worked mobile churches. Thus, the tsarist government strengthened its educational activities in this region.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535635865.pdf
Number of views: 98      Download in PDF

40. Nicholas W. Mitiukov, Svetlana L. Bautina, Semen I. Adinyaev
Steamers of the Izhevsk’s Plants on the 1910-s

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1307-1320.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1307CrossRef

Izhevsk’s lake in the XIX – first half of the XX century was an important transport artery to support the work of the Izhevsk’s plants, primarily to connect the plants with Volozhka and Koltoma. To reduce the cost and to increase the speed of transportation in the late XIX century the first steamships appeared on the Izhevsk’s lake. Based on the documentation of the Izhevsk’s and Votkinsk’s plants, local literature and analysis of photographic materials, an attempt was made to establish the total number of Izhevsk steamships and their names. Despite the fact that in different periods there were only two actively used steamships on the lake, the total number of them was at least six. The most likely picture of the composition of the Izhevsk Shipping was follows. Steamer “Storm”, probably, and remained on Kama. “Pchelka” a former ship merchant I.I. Bodalev, was used as a non-self-propelled boat. The motor boat, probably “Granata”, was operated on the lake for a short time, in the early 1920-s was taken back to the Kama. In 1921, the two most actively used steamship "Izh" and "Shrapnel" were renamed the “Krasnaya Zvezda” and “Svoboda”. And in the mid-1920's they were joined by the steam-ship “Krasnaya Zarya”, just built in Votkinsk, renamed the “Krasny Splavshik”. In the late 1920's “Krasnaya Zvezda” returned to Votkinsk, where under the name “Azin” she worked on a local lake. The two remaining steamships served on the Izhevsk pond until the 1950-s.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535641349.pdf
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41. Boris V. Kolesnikov, Olga Yu. Redkina
Milan Štefanik and Formation of Czech and Slovak Legions in the USA

Bylye Gody. 2018. Vol. 49. Is. 3: 1321-1329.
DOI: 10.13187/bg.2018.3.1321CrossRef

In 1916-1918 there is a peak of activity of the Czech and Slovak movement for independence and creation of their own state. During that period, political struggle was connected with military units’ formation in the Entente countries and USA. There were Czech and Slovak emigre communities and prisoners of war contingents in these countries. This article is devoted to consideration of the Czech and Slovak national movement in the USA during the World War I. First of all, actions of M.R. Štefanik, member of the Czechoslovak National Council, when he visited USA, for activation of the national movement, are analyzed. Basic problems, which faced Czech and Slovak organizations in the USA before and after their joining the War, and difficulties on a way to military units’ formation there, are studied. M.R. Štefanik’s tactics on decision of military and national issues of Czechs and Slovaks in America is specified. The article shows the way how his activity assisted Czech and Slovak organizations in the USA to recognize the political line of T.G. Masaryk. It proves M.R. Štefanik managed to convince his American countrymen that future of Slovaks as a substantive nation was possible only if they would be allied with Czechs and through creation of common state of both nations. Furthermore, peculiar attention is drawn to problem of relations between the national organizations and federal government. It is concluded about specific features of volunteers recruitment process in the USA for the Czech-Slovak military units. These legions had to serve as a base of the Czechoslovak republic’s army and earn international recognition.

URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535636227.pdf
Number of views: 99      Download in PDF

full number
URL: http://ejournal52.com/journals_n/1535655187.pdf
Number of views: 444      Download in PDF

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